Dozens killed in Gondar After Days of Protests Turn Bloody


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47 Responses

  1. Osayres says:

    Welcome Weyane to the Amhara brotherly threat.๐Ÿ˜‘๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ท

    • Beza says:

      What do you mean the Shabiya Osayres, those who did these crime are not Amaras, they are Eritreans who did this. The Tigres are more brotherly with Gondere Amaras than Eritreans. Those are Eritreans who live in Gondar. We will send them to Eritrea where they belong.

      • lion of gondar says:

        The issue is “wolkait”.
        BTW why do Tigres insist on living on Amhara land??
        Why don’t they invest in and develop their beloved Tigrai??
        the real issue is the brazen theft of the Amhara and wolkait fertile land by the jealous and thieving TPLF gangs.

  2. Osayres says:

    Message from Eritrean
    Kill kill kill kill kill kill kill
    Burn burn burn burn burn
    Destroy destroy destru

  3. D says:

    Where was all security personal/dehnet when all these people get organized? I’m sure it didn’t happen overnight. Someone need to be hold accountable….and the Government need to take decisive measure otherwise it will happen again. You gotta let them know this kind of behavior would not be tolerated.

  4. Mahmoud says:

    แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‰ฅแŠ“แˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆฐแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แŒŠแ‹œแ‹แŠ• แŒ แ‰ฅแ‰† แˆ˜แˆแŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฑ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰€แˆญแˆแข แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‹ซแˆ…แˆ แ‰ฅแ‰ณแ‹ตแŒ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ฅแ‰ตแˆˆแˆ› แŠฅแŠ› แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠซแˆแ‹ˆแŒฃแŠ• แŠ แˆแˆญ แ‹ตแˆœ แ‹ญแˆแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŒ แ‰ฃแ‰ฅแŠ“ แ‹˜แˆจแŠ› แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แŠแ‹ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แ‹แŒญแˆ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ตแข แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แˆตแ‰ตแˆ„แ‹ต แŠ แ‹ญแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ฐแˆ แ‹ญแˆˆแ‰ฅแˆณแˆแฃ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แˆณแŠแˆต แˆ›แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แŠ แแˆซแˆฝ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŠแ‰ต แŠจแˆ˜แˆแ€แˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแˆ…แ‹‹แˆ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแˆ‰แˆแข แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹ แˆฅแˆญแ‹“แ‰ฐ แŠ แˆแ‰ แŠแŠแ‰ต แˆ†แŠ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แ‹จแ‹šแˆ แ‹ˆแŒคแ‰ต แŠแ‹แข แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‹ตแˆƒ แŠ แŒˆแˆญ แŠแ‰ฝ แŠ แ‹ซแˆแแˆแŠ•แˆ แ‰ฅแˆˆแ‹แฃ แŠจแˆŒแˆ‹แ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆปแˆˆ แŠ‘แˆฎ แแˆˆแŒ‹ แŠ แŒˆแˆญ แŒฅแˆŽ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแ‹ฐแ‹ฐแ‹ แ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‹›แˆฌ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แˆฐแˆญแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆปแˆˆ แŠ‘แˆฎ แˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แ‰…แŠ“แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆแ‰€แŠแŠแ‰ตแˆ แŒญแˆแˆญ แŠแ‹ แ‹ญแˆ… แˆแˆ‰ แˆ›แŠ•แŒˆแˆซแŒˆแˆญแข แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แˆแ‹ซแˆซแˆแ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆ‹แˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆฐแ‰ แ‹ แ‹จแˆแ‹‹แˆณ แŠขแŠ•แ‹ฑแˆตแ‰ตแˆช แ“แˆญแŠญ แˆแˆญแ‰ƒแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ แˆšแˆจแ‰ฃแˆจแ‰ แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ต แŒ แ‰ฅแ‰€แ‹ แŠแ‹ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฅแ‰… แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ตแข แˆตแˆˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ แŒŽ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แˆแ…แˆž แˆ‹แ‹ซแ‹ˆแˆซ แ‰ƒแˆˆ แˆแˆ…แˆ‹ แ‹จแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹ แ‹จแŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แ‹ตแˆแ… แˆฌแ‹ตแ‹ฎ แŠ แˆ›แˆญแŠ› แŠญแแˆแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆแˆ›แ‹ฑ แ‹ซแˆซแŒˆแ‰ แ‹แข แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแŠ“ แŠ แ‹แˆฎแ“ แ‹จแŠจแ‰ฐแˆ˜แ‹ แ‹จแ‹ฐแˆญแŒแŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แ„แ‹ แ‰ตแˆญแแˆซแŠ แŠจแ‹˜แˆจแŠแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‰ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ‰ แ‹ญแˆ‹แ‰€แ‰ƒแˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ณแˆฐแ‰ฅแˆแข แŠฅแŠ•แŠญแ‹‹แŠ•แˆต แŠจแˆแ‹ตแˆซแ‹Š แแŒกแˆญ แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แˆแŒฃแˆชแˆ แ‹ˆแˆญแ‹ถ แ‰ขแˆˆแˆแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแ‰ฐแŒ แŠ“แ‹ˆแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ แ‹ญแŒฃแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‰ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ‰ แ‹ญแŒˆแˆ‹แŒˆแˆ‹แˆ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ณแˆฐแ‰ฅแˆ แˆตแˆˆแ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จแˆซแˆฑ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹˜แ‹ด แ‰ขแ‰€แ‹ญแˆต แ‹ญแˆปแˆ‹แˆแข แˆ•แ‹ˆแˆ“แ‰ต แ‹ซแˆณแ‹ตแŒˆแ‹แŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆฌแˆตแ‰ถ แŠฅแ‹จแˆˆแˆ˜แŠแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ แ‹ฐแˆจ แŠ แŒˆแˆญ แ‰ฅแ‹ซแˆˆแˆ›แฃ แŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‰ขแŒˆแ‹ฐแ‰ฅ แˆแˆตแŒ‹แŠ“แˆ แ‹จแˆˆแˆ แ‹ญแˆแ‰…แˆต แŠจแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แŠจแ‹แ‹ซแˆ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ แˆซแˆฉ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ•แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆˆแˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแˆฉแ‰ตแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆดแˆฉแ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ขแ‰ณแ‹ดแŒ แ‹ญแˆปแˆ‹แˆแข แˆปแŠฅแ‰ฅแ‹ซ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฃแˆ แŠญแ‰ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แŠ แˆตแ‰€แˆแŒฆ แˆตแˆˆแˆแˆ›แ‰ต แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฅ แ‹จแ‹‹แˆ…แŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹แข แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŒŠแ‹œแ‹ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ต แ‰ แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแŠจแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ แ–แˆŠแˆฒ แˆ˜แˆแˆถ แ‰ฅแ‹ซแ‹จแ‹ แŒฅแˆฉ แ‹ญแˆแˆตแˆˆแŠ›แˆแข แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‹จแŒˆแŒ แˆ›แ‰ต แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แŠแ‰ต แˆˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แ–แˆŠแˆฒ แŠแŒฅแ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แ‰ฐแŠจแˆซแŠญแˆฎ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆณแˆแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆแŠ•แฃ แŠแ‰ต แˆˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ณแŒแˆŽ แˆˆแˆ›แˆธแŠแ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแˆซ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹แŒญ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แˆฝแŒŽ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆฌแŠ“ แŠ แˆ‰แ‰ฃแˆแ‰ณ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆˆแˆ›แแˆจแˆต แ‰†แˆญแŒฆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠแˆณ แŠจแˆƒแ‹ฒ แŠแ‹แข แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆฌ แˆตแŒ‹แ‰ต แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹ซแˆฐแ‰ฅแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แˆฝแ‰ฃแˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆˆแˆ›แ‹ฐแŠ• แ‰ฃแˆ•แˆญ แŠ แ‰…แˆญแŒฆ แŠ แแŒ‹แŠ’แˆตแ‰ณแŠ•แฃ แŠขแˆซแ‰…แฃ แˆถแˆญแ‹ซแฃแ‹จแˆ˜แŠ•แฃแˆŠแ‰ฅแ‹ซ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ณแˆแข แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆฉ แˆแ‹ตแˆญ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แˆ€แŒˆแˆฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆธแˆจแ‰ก แˆ›แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŠแ‰ถแ‰ฝ แŠ แ‹ซแ‰…แˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ณแˆฐแ‰ฅแˆแŠ“ แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแŠ–แ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ›แˆ˜แŠ• แŠแ‹แข

  5. Muchie says:

    Wikipedia, The free Encyclopedia,
    Before the 1930, these areas have been administered under Tigray lords( Rases and Mesafints) along the majority of Raya which are now part of the Amhara region because the current generation of southern Raya starting from Kobo has through time changed to Amharic speaking population (since its incorporation during the Atse Haileselassie region), However, historical evidence such as a book by Manoel Barradas, a missionary who visited Tigray in 1624, in his book entitled “Tractatus Tres Historico-Geographic (1634) states that these areas have been under Tigrai rulers. He states it clearly in his book and has presented map of Tigray of that period. Besides, a book prepared during the Dergue regime entitled “class struggle and the problem in Eritrea (1971 EC or end of 1970) also indicates those areas (Wolkait, Tsegede and Humera) under Tigrigna-speaking boundary, Specifically, these 1970s map by the Dergue indicates that these areas are bordered by Kunama in north, Amhara in South and Sudan in the West, their Eastern part being with no boundary because they speak the same language as Tigrai. The great majority of the people of Humera, Wolkait-tsegedie and Tselemti speak Tigringa while there are few Amharic speakers. However, since it has been a high cotton production area, the labor force has been highly diversified and mixed from different parts of the country.

  6. Sam says:

    No government gets legitimacy by killing its own citizens. EPDRF cannot be an exception. Any government which divides its citizens between supporters and terrorists lack the very basic understanding of governing. For years now EPDRF chose to resolve poltical dispute by killing. Is a population that is forced to submit to the will of state with military power will be so as the EPDRF wishes? I do not bet on that.

  7. Erta says:

    Civilians are killed because the Ethiopian government has no any contingency plan to tackle the Eritrean state political power that has been used to create havoc in the heartland of Ethiopia. Ethiopia had manage to stop the state of Eritrea’s military aggression but from the get go the Ethiopian government had no any political plan in place to take out the political power of Shabia. The Eritrean oppositions have been weak and very reluctant to work with Ethiopia to challenge Shabia politically and this strategy gap and lack of formidable oppositions from Eritrea side has become a strategy loop hole that shaba is trying to manipulate to achieve its objective of destroying Ethiopia.The only advantage Ethiopia has is its military force to squeeze. Ethiopia not using its strategic advantage against Eritrea is playing to strength of Eritrea. Ethiopia, going forward, striking Eritrea where it hurts most can bring the regime in Eritrea to standstill and the regime in Eritrea will talk with Ethiopia once it understood that it has no any more options but to abounded its plan of stabilizing Ethiopia after realizing the cost of doing business to destabilize Ethiopia. Until then Ethiopian will keep on dying in the land of the free.

  8. us for us with us says:

    “Violence broke out after army attempted to arrest several people in the city of Gondar,”

    This was the reason and the story had to be based on this fact. However, the Zionists/Jews monopolized propaganda medias are happily vomiting saying “Ethnic violence” which is a lie but their wish and efforts to see happening between Amhara and Tigry which is their only dream and wish but will never happen. There is nothing to make the Amhara and Tigry as separate Ethnic groups but there are lots of things to make them as one and the same.

    The violence is not between Ethnics but the caused by the 20+ years of graveness the Wolkite Tegede people in western region of Tigry that had historical as well and human connections with Gonder than with Tigry.
    However, your source about your own country and people story must not be the CIA and MI6 created and run Al Jazera to cause troubles in the ME and Africa. Is it difficult to find out the truth by own efforts doing own country media jobs by ourselves?

  9. Valerie says:

    I hate the recent violence seen in Ethiopia, but no matter what I still think it’s a great country to travel. Maybe others disagree, but this is why I’d still travel Gondar.

  10. Concerned Ethiopian says:

    แŠจแˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ•แŠ“ แˆ€แˆ‹แŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠฅแˆ…แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ตแˆžแ‰ฝแก

    แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แˆแ‰บ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆแŒฃแˆชแŠ“ แŠ แ‰ฃแ‰ฃแˆฝ แŠจแˆ†แŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ฑ แ‰ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแŒแˆŒ แŠแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แ‹˜แ‰ฅ แŒ แ‰ฃแ‰‚ แ‹˜แ‰ แŠ›แŠ“ แŒฆแˆจแŠ› แŠจแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แŠแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆตแˆ›แˆ›แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แˆตแˆซแ‰ต แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แŠจแˆ›แŒˆแŠœแ‰ต แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™ แ‹จแˆ‹แ‰€ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแŠ” แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แŠแŠแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแŠแŠซแŠแˆ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠจแ‹ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แŠจแˆ˜แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ต แ‹ญแˆแ‰… แŠฅแŠ”แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แŠ•แŠ›แ‹แˆ แŠแŠ แ‰ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆตแˆ›แˆ›แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ตแŠ• แˆแ‹ฉแŠแ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‹จแ‰คแŒŒแˆแ‹ตแˆญ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‹‹แŠแŠ›แ‹ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Šแ‹ แŠ แŠซแˆ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠฅแŠ“แŠ•แ‰ฐแˆ แ‹จแˆแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰แ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แŒฅแ‰‚แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ฐแ‰แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆแˆตแˆจแ‰ณ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แŒ‹แˆญ แˆˆแˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ณแˆชแ‹Šแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ณแ‹Š แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆ…แŒˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แŠซแˆˆแˆแŠ•แˆ แ‹ตแˆญแ‹ตแˆญ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆตแˆแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‰ แˆตแˆแŒฃแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‰ฐแˆแŠ“แŒฆ แ‰ แŠแ‰ แˆญ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแˆ›แŠ• แŠแŠญแ‰ถแŠ แ‰ตแ‰ขแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ•แ‰€แ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ›แ‹ญแŒจแ‹แŠ•แŠ“ แŠ แˆˆแˆ›แŒฃแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แŠจแ‹ˆแˆŽ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆฐแ‹ฐแ‹ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแˆ แ‹จแ‹šแˆ… แŠ แŠซแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŒแŠ• แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠ แŠซแˆแŠแ‰ฑ แˆแ‹ฉ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ“ แˆแŠ• แŒŠแ‹œแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแŒ แ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แŠจแˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹™แŠ“ แŠจแŒฅแ‰‚แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ฐแˆตแˆ›แˆแ‰ถ แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แŠญแˆแˆ แŠจแˆ˜แˆ˜แˆตแˆจแ‰ฑ แ‰ แŠแ‰ต 90 แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŠแ‰ แˆญแกแก แŠจแŠญแˆแˆ แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แŒแŠ• แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆฐแˆซ แˆฐแˆแˆซ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แˆบแˆ†แ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แŒ แˆฉ แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแŒแ‹˜แ‹ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆฐแแˆฉ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ“แˆแกแก แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แŠ—แˆช แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘แ‰ต แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆ€แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แŠฅแŒฃแˆ แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แŒŠแ‹œ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ แˆšแ‹ซแˆตแŠจแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แˆšแ‹˜แŒˆแŠ•แŠ• แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ˆแ‹ตแ‰‹แˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆˆแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แ‰ฅแ‹›แ‰ต แˆ‹แˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝ แŠจแŠฅแˆฎแˆฎ แŠ แˆแŽ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแก แ‹›แ‰ปแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆ›แˆตแŠแˆณแ‰ต แ‹ฐแˆญแˆทแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‰ฐแŒˆแ‰ขแ‹ แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠซแˆ‹แŒˆแŠœ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹จแŠจแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ„แ‹ต แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แŠฅแˆตแŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก

    แˆ˜แˆแˆฑ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰… แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„แ‹ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‰ แŠฅแŒƒแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ แŒแˆแ… แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆˆแˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ แˆšแˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แˆแŠจ แˆŠแˆแ‰ณ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‹‹แˆแกแก แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆˆแŠ› แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ“ แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แˆŠแˆฐแŒ แ‹ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แŠ แŠ•แŒˆแ‰ฅแŒ‹แ‰ข แ‹จแˆ…แˆแ‹แŠ“ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แŠแ‹ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆŒแˆ‹ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆ แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แˆแŠ•แก แ‰ แˆ›แˆฐแˆญแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒแ‹ฐแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•แˆแกแก แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแ‹ซแ‹แˆ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‹ซแ‰ฃแ‰ฅแˆฐแ‹‹แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠซแˆ แ‰‚แˆ แ‹ซแ‹˜แˆˆ แŒ แ‰ฃแˆณ แ‹ญแŒฅแˆ‹แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚แกแก แˆแˆ˜แˆซแŠ“ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹แˆ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ แˆแˆ‰ แŠจแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แŒแŠ•แŠ™แŠแ‰ต แŠจแ‹ฐแˆ แŒ‹แˆญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแ‹‹แˆ€แ‹ฐ แŠแ‹ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ… แ‹จแŒฅแŠ•แ‰ณแ‹Š แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ แŠ•แŒˆแ‰ฅแŒ‹แ‰ข แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แˆ˜แˆแ‰ณแ‰ต แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก

    แ‰ แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ•แฃ แˆ€แˆ‹แŠแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ซแŒˆแ‰ฃแŠ›แˆ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆˆแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แˆˆแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠฅแˆ…แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ตแˆžแ‰ฝ แŒแˆแ… แˆŠแˆ†แŠ•แˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‰ขแŠ–แˆญ แŠจแŒซแŠซ แ‰ตแˆแˆ…แˆญแ‰ต แ‰คแ‰ต แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆจแˆฑแ‰ต แ‰ฃแˆ€แˆชแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹แ‰€แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แ‹ซแ‰€แ‹ฑแ‰ต แŠฅแ‰…แ‹ต แˆˆแŒŠแ‹œแ‹ แ‹จแˆฐแˆซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแˆฐแˆซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ซแˆˆ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ•แˆ แ‹˜แˆˆแ‰„แ‰ณแŠแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แ‹ญแŠ–แˆจแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŠจแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ฐแ‰†แˆญแˆถ แˆˆแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแŒฅแ‰ แ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Šแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ณแ‹Š แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆญแˆแก แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆˆแˆแก แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ตแˆ แŠ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฐแ‹ซ แ‰ฅแ‰ธแŠ› แŒˆแ‹ข แ‰ แŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰€แŠ“แŒ€ แˆดแˆซ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แ‹ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แˆบแˆ†แ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แŒ แˆฉ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆฐแ‹แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แˆ›แˆตแˆแˆญแŠ“ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แŠแˆฑ แ‰แŒฅแŒฅแˆญ แˆตแˆญ แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แŠ“ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰€แ‹ แˆ…แŒˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แŒแŠ• แ‰ แแแˆ แ‰ฐแ‰€แ‰ฃแ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‹ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแŠ“แŠ•แ‰ฐ แˆตแˆซ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ“แŠ•แ‰ฐแˆ แ‹จแˆแ‰ณแ‹แ‰แ‰ต แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŒแˆแ… แŠแ‹แกแก

    แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แˆˆแŒ‹แˆซ แŒฅแ‰…แˆแŠ“ แˆˆแ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แŠ แ‰ฅแˆฎ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แˆฒแ‰ฃแˆ แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแ‰ แ‰ณแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ‹แˆแˆ†แŠ แŒแŠ• แŠฅแ‹จแˆžแ‰€แŠ“ แŠฅแ‹ซแ‰ƒแŒ แˆˆ แˆ„แ‹ถ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แ‰€แŠ• แ‹ซแ‰ แŒ แ‹ แˆ˜แˆแŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฑแŠ“ แ‹จแŠจแ‹ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแˆฑ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰€แˆญแˆแกแก แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ˜แˆแˆถ แŠจแ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹ แŒ‹แˆจ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰€แˆ‹แ‰€แˆ แ‰ฃแ‹ญแ‰ปแˆแˆ แ‹จแŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰ แŠ”แ‰ตแŠแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แˆ˜แŒ แ‰ แ‰… แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แŠจ30.000 แŠชแˆœ แˆตแŠฉแ‹จแˆญ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠแŠ• แ‰ แŒฃแˆ แˆˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠ แŠซแˆ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แˆˆแˆซแˆต แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แ‰ แˆ˜แŠจแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แ‰ แˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แˆแˆ แŒŠแ‹œแˆ แˆˆแŒแˆ แŒฅแ‰…แˆœ แŠ แ‹ฐแˆญแŒ‹แˆˆแˆ แ‰ฅแˆŽ แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฅ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แ‰ฐแ‰€แ‰ฃแ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹ แŠฅแŠ“ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠ แŠซแˆ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ แ‹แ‹แ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆŠแŒˆแŠแˆˆแ‰ต แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แŠฅแˆ›แˆซแŠ“ แ‰ตแŒแˆฌ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠ แŠซแˆแŠ“ แŠ แˆแˆณแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆ‰แˆ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แ‰ แ‰คแ‰ตแˆ แ‹จแŒแˆŒ แŠแ‹ แ‰ แˆšแˆ แˆฐแ‰ แ‰ฅ แˆŠแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แŠ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แˆตแŠ•แŠจแ‹แก แˆตแŠ“แ‹แฃ แˆตแŠ•แŒŽแ‹ณแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆตแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆฐแ‰ตแก แˆตแŠ•แˆตแ‰…แก แˆตแŠ•แŒ แ‰€แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŒŽแŠ• แŠ แ‰ฅแˆจแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฅแˆจแŠ• แ‰ แแ‰…แˆญแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแˆณแˆฐแ‰ฅ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‰ฃแ‰ฅแˆจแŠ• แˆแŠ•แŠ–แˆญ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แˆˆแˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แˆฒแ‰ฃแˆ แŒแŠ• แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠ แŠซแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‰€แ‰ฃแ‹จแŠแ‰ต แŠ แŒแŠแ‰ถ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆแŠ›แŠ“ แ‹˜แˆˆแ‰„แ‰ณ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แŒแ‹ต แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แ‹แŒญ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠแ‹ แŒแŠ• แŒŠแ‹œ แŠฅแ‹จแŒˆแ‹› แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‰ฃแ‰ฅแˆฐ แŒŠแ‹œแ‹ซแ‹Š แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹˜แˆˆแ‰„แ‰ณแŠแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แˆˆแˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก

  11. Tesfa says:

    Wake up Ethiopian intelligence and start operating and controlling atrocoties in and intelligent and modern ways. Shabia and his dogs evil will is starting to win to some extend and the Ethiopian intelligence need to wake up and do his intelligence works systematically and destroy shabia and his dogs.

  12. us for us with us says:

    This is sickening and need to stop.

    There is no reason to divide the Amhara and Tigry in the name of Kilil related to political, social and as well as economical reasons by either side but administration reasons for the benefit of all. How can you divide them and draw a kind of boarder between the two while they are 99.9% the same people with everything living together at least for 3000 years recorded history?

    The History they have, the food they eat, the drink they drink, the traditional cloth they wear, the music instruments and bits, culture, tradition, natural outlook and everything among them is the same and very old. The old and cold war TPLF idea of dividing the country including the two in the name of Kilil for bad reasons against the amahara while good for Tigry is wrong and must be corrected this time.

    Let the amhara and Tigry Kilil lines and ideas gone forever replacing them with something that is working for both of them according to their common history, similarities and common goals and future together. Allow the citizens to interact without any limitation with goal to create a smelting pot society between them which is good for everyone and the best solution for the future many generations to come.

    Or else if you want to keep kilil the way it was illegally created based on the old and cold war TPLF ideas, then let others the so called minorities in Tigry to exercise their rights including the Amharas, Irobs, Kunamas, Rayas, Afars and the likes as others are doing elsewhere in the country because of the damaging Ethnic policy in the country. Ethiopians need to stop isolating themselves and hiding behind the Ethnic sicknesses. Instead they need to work hard and do all efforts in order to create a nationwide smelting pot 21-century modern and useful society which is the best for everyone including for the coming many generations.

    Look at how blacks are treated in the west and elsewhere for centuries including USA. It is not because of their Ethnicities but race pushing all of them to hell seeing them as if all them are the same and one. So, stop damaging the country and hurt the citizens in the name of Ethnicity no one sees the differences among the citizens with naked eyes other than similarities but the evil and poison ideas coming from the evils and hateful acting as if they are the chosen and good representatives and educated.

  13. ethoash says:

    why this building doesn’t have security camera ? if the building worth 20 million why not spend 20,000 birr to have security camera and protect the property

  14. Concerned citizen says:

    แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แˆ…แŒˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ต แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒ‹แˆญ แˆ˜แŠจแˆˆแˆ แŠจแŒ…แˆแˆฉ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ แ‹ฒแ‹ซแˆตแ–แˆซแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‰แŒฃ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‹ญแ‹แŠ“ แŒ แ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแŠแˆณ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠจแŒฅแ‰‚แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‹‹แŠแŠ›แ‹ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแŠ“ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠจแ‰…แˆฌแ‰ณแŠ“ แ‹ˆแ‰€แˆณ แŠ แˆแŽ แ‹จแ‰แŒฃแŠ“ แ‹จแŒ แ‰ฅ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹ซแˆˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ซแˆˆ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ณแ‹Š แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆˆแˆแŠแ‰ฑ แŠฅแŠ“ แˆฑแ‹ณแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแŠฉแŠ“แˆ› แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แ‹‹แˆฐแŠ‘ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แˆˆแ‰ตแˆญแแŠ“ แˆˆแŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ฅแ‰ธแŠ› แ‹แˆณแŠ” แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ƒแˆŽ แ‰ แˆ…แŒˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แˆฐแˆˆแˆ˜แˆแ€แˆ™แŠ“ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ถแ‰ฝแˆ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแŒ…แˆแˆฉ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ˆแ‰€แ‹ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠจแŒซแŠซ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹ซแ‰€แ‹ฐแ‹แŠ“ แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆฒแŒจแ‰ฅแŒฅ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠจแˆซแˆฑ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แŠ แŠณแ‹ซ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‰ แˆ›แ‹จแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซ แ‰ฐแˆ›แˆแŠ–แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ• แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แ‰ฐแŒˆแŠ• แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฅแˆŽ แˆˆแˆซแˆฑ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แˆฒแˆ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ“ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŠจแ‹šแ‹ซ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จแŠ“ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆˆแŒ‹แˆซ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แŠฅแŠ“ แˆˆแŒแˆ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‰ แŒแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แ‹จแˆแŠ•แˆฐแˆซแ‰ แ‰ต แŒŠแ‹œ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ตแˆญแ‹ตแˆญ แ‰ฝแŒแˆฎแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹จแˆแ‰ฝแˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆตแŠ•แˆ†แŠ• แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆ˜แŒ แ‰€แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆแŠ•แ‰ฝแˆ แ‹ซแ‹ˆแ‰…แŠ•แ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆ˜แŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆณแˆฐแ‰ฅ แ‹จแ‰ แˆฐแˆแŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แŒŠแ‹œ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ†แŠ แ‰ตแ‰ แˆŽ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ›แ‹ˆแ‰… แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ™ แˆตแˆ…แ‰ฐแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹จแˆแŠ“แˆตแ‰ฐแŠซแŠญแˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆตแˆˆแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹แˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‹ญแ‰…แˆญแ‰ณ แ‹จแˆแŠ•แŒ แ‹ญแ‰…แ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆแŠ•แ‰€แ‰ แˆแ‰ แ‰ตแˆ แŠแ‹ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑแกแก

    แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰ฐแŒˆแ‰ข แ‰ แˆ†แŠ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแ‰ แ‰ณแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แŠฅแŒ… แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แ‰ฐแ‹Žแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแก แˆ€แˆ‹แŠแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ“ แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ต แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆแก แ‰ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ‰แŠ“ แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆšแŒ แ‰…แˆ แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฐแŠซแŠจแˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แŠฅแ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹แŠ• แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แŠฅแ‹จแŒŽแ‹ณ แ‹ญแ‰€แŒฅแˆ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซ แ‰ฐแˆ›แˆ˜แŠ– แˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹ แˆ˜แˆžแŠจแˆญแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹แˆ แ‰ แŠแˆฑ แŠฅแŒ… แŠแ‹แกแก แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆฐแ‹แŠ“ แŒ แˆˆแ‰… แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แ‰ แˆญแ‹แˆ˜แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ตแŠ›แ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹จแˆšแ‰ แŒ…แŠ“ แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแŒ แ‰…แˆ แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แ‰ฝแŒแˆฉแŠ• แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆ แ‰ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰แ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆณแ‹ญแ‹ˆแˆฐแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆฐแŒฅ แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ฑ แ‹ˆแŒฅแ‰ถแŠ“ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆˆแŠ›แ‹ แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แ‰ฐแŒˆแŠแ‰ถ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆŠแŒˆแŠแˆˆแ‰ต แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แŠซแˆแˆ†แŠ แŒแŠ• แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฃแˆฐแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแŠจแ‹ แˆ„แ‹ถ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠซแŠจแˆแˆ แˆตแˆญ แ‹จแˆฐแ‹ฐแ‹ฐ แˆแ‹ฉแŠแ‰ต แˆŠแˆแŒฅแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฅแ‰‚แ‰ต แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แŒแ‰ฅแˆจ แŠ แ‰ แˆฎแ‰น แ‰ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆตแˆ›แˆ›แ‰ฐ แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆตแˆ แˆˆแ‹จแŒฅแ‰…แˆ›แ‰ธแ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแŠ• แˆฒแ‰€แˆซแˆ˜แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแ‹ˆแŠญแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแŠญแˆŽ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ฑ แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆแ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ฐแˆ แŠฅแŠ“ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰‚ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ˆแ‰€แ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแˆแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แŒแŠ• แˆตแˆ‹แˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆ˜แ‹ˆแ‰ƒแ‰€แˆต แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ›แ‹ˆแ‰… แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แŒ‹แˆญ แˆ›แŒ แ‰ƒแˆˆแˆแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ™ แˆตแˆ…แ‰ฐแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแŠซแŠจแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆญ แˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แˆ˜แ‰ปแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠซแˆ‹แŒˆแŠœ แŒแŠ• แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แŠ แŠซแˆแŠแ‰ฑแŠ“ แŠญแ‰ตแ‹แˆแ แ‰ตแ‹แˆแ‹ต แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แ‹ฐแˆ แˆตแˆญ แˆ˜แŒˆแŠœแ‰ฑ แ‹จแ‰ตแˆ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆแˆˆแ‰ฑแˆ แŒŽแŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แˆŠแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแˆต แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แˆแˆˆแ‰ต แŠฅแŒฅแแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ฅแ‹›แ‰ตแˆ แ‰ แŠฅแŒ…แŒ แ‹จแ‰ แˆˆแŒ  แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆญ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰€แ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ˆแˆŽแŠ•แˆ แ‰ฅแŠ•แ‹ˆแˆตแ‹ต แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆจแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆŽแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠจแ‹ตแˆฎ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆฉ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แˆŠแ‰ฃแˆ‰ แŠฅแˆตแŠจแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ‰ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆฒแ‹ญแ‹ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆตแˆ แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แŒแ‹›แ‰ตแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ˜แˆตแˆจแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ แŠจแŒแˆ›แˆฝ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹แŠ• แŠจแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญแŠ“ แŠจแ‹ˆแˆŽ แŒˆแŠ•แŒฅแˆŽ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‹แˆฐแ‹ต แ‹ฐแˆแˆจแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ตแˆ แˆแ€แˆ˜แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‰ตแˆแ‰… แˆตแˆ…แ‰ฐแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แ‰ แ‰ฅแˆ„แˆญ แˆตแˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠจแ‰ฐแŠจแ‹แˆแˆˆแ‰ฝ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แŒแŠ• แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แˆแŠจ แˆ†แŠ– แ‹ญแ‰€แŒฅแˆ‹แˆ แˆˆแˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ปแˆแˆแกแก แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™ แ‹จแˆ‹แ‰€ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ†แŠแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆตแˆญแ‰ฐแŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แˆณแŠ“แˆฐแˆแˆญ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹ŠแŠ“ แŠญแˆแˆ‹แ‹Š แˆแŠ•แˆ†แŠ• แŒแŠ• แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆตแˆ แ‰ แˆ…แŒˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠจแˆ›แŒ แ‰ƒแˆˆแˆ‰ แ‰ แŠแ‰ต แ‰ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆฉ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉแ‰ต แŠจ90 แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แŠจ1991 แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆฐแˆแˆซ แˆ˜แˆแŠจ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆจแˆจ แŒแˆแ… แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠแ‰ณแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹ญแŠจแ‰ แˆญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹ญแŒ แ‰ แ‰…แˆแŠ• แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แˆซแˆณแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆตแ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŠ›แŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆˆแˆฝ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ณแ‹จแŠ• แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ฅแ‹›แ‰ฅแŠ•แŠ“ แŠ แŠ•แˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแŠ“แˆ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แŒฉแŠธแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆฐแˆš แ‰ แˆ›แŒˆแŠœแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹‹แˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แŠซแˆแˆ†แŠ แŒแŠ• แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆˆแ‰ฅแ‰ปแ‹ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ตแˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆˆแˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแŠซแŠจแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ธแŒˆแˆญ แŠ แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ‘ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰… แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แˆˆแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แŠแ‹ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉแŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ฐ แŠจแŒ…แˆแˆฉ แŒ€แˆ˜แˆฎ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ… แŠแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแˆ‰แ‰ต แŠฅแŒ… แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฃแˆˆแ‹แกแก

    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠ แˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆ†แŠแŠ• แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แˆˆแŠ› แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แŠฅแŠ•แ‰€แŒฅแˆ‹แˆˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แŠฅแŠ“แŒˆแŠ›แˆˆแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแˆ‰ แŠซแˆ‰ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แŒฃแˆ แ‰ฐแˆณแˆตแ‰ฐแ‹‹แˆแกแก แŒแˆแ…แก แ‰€แˆ‹แˆแŠ“ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆแŠ› แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แˆแˆจแŒฅ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™ แ‹จแˆ‹แ‰€แŠ“ แˆˆแˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แ‹ตแˆ˜แ‹ แˆŠแˆจแ‹ฑแ‰ต แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŒแŠ• แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ฐแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แŒ แ‰ฅแ‰€แ‹ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ฐแˆตแ‹ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰แˆจแŒฅ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแˆŒแˆ‹ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆ›แˆแˆซแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆฝแŠ•แˆแ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰€แ‰ แˆ แŠฅแŒ… แˆฐแŒฅแ‰ฐแ‹แŠ“ แŠ แˆœแŠ• แ‰ฅแˆˆแ‹ แŠ แˆญแˆแ‹ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰€แˆ˜แŒก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠแŒ‹แˆชแˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆ˜แˆตแŠซแˆช แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแˆแˆแŒ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก

    แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แˆชแ‹ˆแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แŒ แ‰…แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆšแŠ’แˆตแ‰ฐแˆญ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ต แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‰ฝแˆ‹แˆˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹ซแŒˆแ‰ฃแŠ“แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ‰ แˆแˆ‰ แŒแŠ• แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ณ แ‰ แˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แˆŠแ‹ซแ‹แ‰แ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™ แˆ‰แˆˆแŒˆแ‰ฅ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ“ แˆˆแˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แŠ• แ‰ฐแˆจแ‹ตแ‰ฐแ‹ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆณแ‹ญแ‹ˆแˆตแ‹ฑแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆแˆ†แŠ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆฐแŒก แˆˆแ‹ˆแˆˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แŠ—แˆช แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆแŠ› แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแ‰ปแˆ แ‰ แˆšแˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แŒแ‹ต แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก

    • Be ewnetu says:

      แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠแ‹แข แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแˆ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰€แˆ˜แ‹ แ‹จแˆˆแˆแข แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹แˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแŠ“แ‰€แˆˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒŽแ‹ณ แ‹จแˆˆแˆแข
      “แˆฐแŠ” แŠฅแŠ“ แˆฐแŠž” แ‰ฐแŒˆแŒฃแŒ แˆ˜แŠ“ แ‹จแˆปแ‹•แ‰ขแ‹ซ แˆตแˆซ แŠ แˆตแˆแƒแˆš แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แˆ…แ‹‹แˆ•แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰กแข แˆแˆญแŒซ แˆˆแˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แˆตแˆˆแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆแˆแŒ‰แฃ แˆˆแŠ แˆจแ‰ฅแŠ“ แˆˆแˆปแ‹•แ‰ขแ‹ซ แ‰ แŒˆแŠ•แ‹˜แ‰ฅ แ‰ แ‰ฐแŒˆแ‹™ ‘แŠขแˆณแ‰ถแ‰ฝ’ แ•แˆฎแ“แŒ‹แŠ•แ‹ณ แŒญแˆแˆญ แŒฆแˆฑ แˆˆแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ†แŠแข
      แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅแŠ“ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแŠแŒ‹แŒแˆฎ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠฅแˆตแŠชแ‹จแŒˆแŠ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹จแŠ แˆแŠ‘ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹แŒญ แŠฅแŠฉแ‹ญ แ•แˆฎแ“แŒ‹แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒŽแŠ• แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แ‰ตแŠ•แˆฝ แˆ˜แ‰ณแŒˆแˆฑ แˆˆแˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹ญแ‰ แŒƒแˆแข
      แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แŠ แˆแŽ แŠฅแˆณแ‰ถแ‰ฝ แŠฅแˆณแ‰ฑแŠ• แŠซแ‰€แŒฃแŒ แˆ‰แ‰ตแฃ แ‹ฒแˆฒแˆ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ตแˆ†แŠ“แˆˆแ‰ฝแข แˆแŠ• แ‹ฒแˆฒ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠฅแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ฑ แ‰คแ‰ต แŠจแˆฐแˆœแŠ• แˆ˜แ‹˜แŒ‹แŒƒ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แˆแ‹ฐแ‰ณ แŒญแˆฑ แ‹ญแ‹ณแˆจแˆณแˆแข

      แ‹จแˆ›แŠ• แ‹˜แˆ˜แ‹ต แŠแ‹ถ แ‹จแˆ›แŠ• แˆŠแˆตแ‰…
      แˆ›แŠ• แŒจแ‹แˆช แˆŠแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แŠ• แˆฐแ‹ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆแ‰…?

      แ‹จแŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แˆตแ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŠžแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแฃ แ‰ แŠ แ‹ฒแˆต แŠ แ‰ แ‰ฃ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆžแ‰ฝ แŠจแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแŠ•แŒแ‹ต แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ƒแˆš แˆ†แŠแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญ แŠจแ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญ แ‰ แˆ›แŒฃแˆ‹แ‰ต แ‹จแˆปแ‹•แ‰ขแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ฐแˆแŠฅแŠฎ แ‰ แ‹แŒญแˆ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ‰ แ‹ญแŒˆแŠ›แˆ‰แข แ‹จแŠฅแŠแˆฑแŠ• แŠฅแŒแ‹›แ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญแŠ• แ‹ˆแŠญแˆˆแŠแ‹‹แˆแข แ‰ แ‰ แˆจแˆ…แˆแˆ แ‰ แ‰ฃแˆ…แˆญแˆ แ‰ ISIS แŠฅแ‹ซแ‰€แŒฃแˆแŠ•แฃ แ‰ แŠ แˆˆแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‹ฐแŠแŒแŒ แ‹แŠ• แ‹จแŠฉแˆ‹แˆŠแ‰ต แŠ•แŒแ‹ต แŠจแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แˆŒแˆ‹แฃ แ‰ แŠฅแˆตแˆซแŠคแˆ แŠฅแˆตแˆญ แ‰คแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ 6 แˆบแˆ… แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแ‹Š แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠจแ‰ณแˆฐแˆจแ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹Š แ‰ แˆบ แŠฅแŒ… แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒฃแˆแข
      แ‰ แŠ แˆแŠ‘ แˆฐแŠ แ‰ต แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆฌ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ถ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแˆญ แŠ แ‹ตแŠซแˆš แŠจแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠแˆณ “แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ถ แŠแŒ‹แˆช” แ‰ แˆแŠ’แˆตแ‰ตแˆญ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆŠแ‰ƒแ‰ƒแ‹‹แˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠชแŒˆแ‹ฐแ‹ฑ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แˆ†แŠแ‹‹แˆแข แŠฅแŒแ‹šแŠ แ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญแŠ• แ‹ˆแŠญแˆˆแŠ“แˆแข แ‹จแŠขแˆ…แŠ แ‹ดแŒ แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‰€แŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แŠ• แ‹จแŠ แ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ญแ‹ˆแ‰…แˆแŠ•
      แ‹ˆแ‹ฒ แˆฝแˆจแข

  15. Ashan Gulite says:

    Gonder missing Melaku Tefera

  16. Sol says:

    You are nothing, but instigator Areb dog Osayres( varies).all this premature people are destroying their infer structures and killing their people, what a shame, they can not learn from the Middle East , doma ras!!

  17. wedinkafa says:

    Woy-ane blaming Eritrea won’t save you from your eminent demise, It is known that Eritrea had bewitched you, stop day dreaming start living.

    How did Gethachew Read got the illness of his predecessor, Bereket Simon, please Getachew live your life otherwise you will be mad like Bereket of Gondar!!!

  18. Mama Ethiopia says:

    Some Facts about Wolkite Tegede

    1. It is a historical part of Begemeder – Gonder since the time of memorial.
    2. The people lived there always have been the Amhara.
    3. It was always the list developed, less occupied and forest area as it was the case in many part of Ethiopia before.
    4. The Socialist regime started state owned sesame, cotton and sorghum huge farms.
    5. Since the 1980’s it became the TPLF hiding place and they started waging intimidations, assassinations and wars against the residents and destroyed the state farms. Many people forced to flee the region because of TPLF.
    6. In Quara as well as Wolkite Tegede were also EPRP, Meison and other groups. TPLF and EPLF together waged wars against these groups and they not only did win the battle but also became the only occupied rebel forces in the region.
    7. When the government was gone in 1991, they not only took the full control of the Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem wuha zuria that are now illegally part of the Tigry Kilil but also the whole of Ethiopia.
    8. since kilil was introduced according to TPLF and EPLF plan against Ethiopia and particularly targeting the Amhara and many other groups in the south such as Gurage and so on, Wolkite Tegede, Telment and Alem wuha zuria which are the historical part of Begemeder -Gonder became illegally and by force part of Tigry.
    9. Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem wuha Zuria have the total of 35.000KM2 land area. These are the only places Tigry is claiming as fertile, commercial and economic important despite they are not historically or legally part of Tigry but to Bedemeder- Gonder.
    10. since 1991, TPLF has settled hundreds of thousands Tigrian families in the mass settlements program in the Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem wuha zuria areas calling them merabawi zones (western Zones). As a result, the native Amhara people became not only the Minorities but also have lost their human rights in their own ancestry lands.

    One thing is certain and that is the issue of Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem wuha Zuria that are became illegally part of Tigry instead of remaining being part of Gonder will not go away. It will take as far as many generations to come until the situation is solved based on the facts. The TPLF and its cadres and securities behaviors we have seen what they did in Gonder recently in the place which is too far away from Tigry is wrong, criminal and will worsen and widen the situation against them.

    Good and the right advice is needed to TPLF, its fanatic cadres, rebel minded security forces and the blind folded people about their thinking for the wolkite Tegede, Tilmet and Alem wuha zuria regions acting as if they do belong to them which is not True but the occupied lands since 1991. They must come down, get some understanding about the things related to the issue and be part of the solution. They can’t have it by themselves while everyone knows how was their relationship with it before Ethiopia was divided in the name of kilil under the TPLF chairmanship and few others as secretariats and members while the Amhara were not represented by their representatives but by TPLF appointed pretenders.

    All the people living in Wolkite Tegede, Tilmet and Alem wuha Zuria must get equal rights not only they are living there but also they are Ethiopians, too. TPLF using forces coming to Gonder for the sake of only Tigry is wrong and it is only to protect the illegal and wrong reason which is Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem wuha Zuria being continued as the private property of Tigry instead of all Ethiopians including the native Amhara living there for generations.

    The PM of Ethiopia must intervene before things are getting out of hands. It will never go away knowing it was done illegally and by force and became part of Tigry and ever since the natives are suffering because of discriminations, intimidations, imprisonments and so on by the setters since 1991.

    Wolkite Tegede to Begemeder -Gonder is like Axum, Adigrat or Mekele to Tigry if not more. The issue will not go away unless it is solved with vision for the sake of not only the regions but also the country. TPLF must understand that they are not anymore in bush or on the mountains or they are not the only force ruling Ethiopia as they wish the way they did before including creating Kilil as they wish based on their benefits.

    They must let go the past very damaging history of theirs. Instead they have to find their true place in Ethiopia and work together with others for the nation building efforts based on one people and one nation principles. Some fanatic and liar TPLF cadres’ behaviors related to the current unrest in Gonder caused by them and the issues that are the wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem Wuha zuria is disgusting. They are really crazy with no brain or soul but acting as if they are still in 1991s when they took power by force and did what they did to Ethiopia as they wish based on their own benefits and interests including related to Kilil.

    In the name of Kilil, they managed to declare the ownership of Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem Wuha Zuria which is 35.000KM2 that are the Historical parts to Begemder-Gonder. But they will never get away with it as they wish. They have only one good or one bad choice.

    The good choice is the choice of the people, region and Ethiopia as a whole and that is with peaceful approaches solving the issues based on the truth and facts including allowing the Natives to exercise their rights in the Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem Wuha Zuria regions which is their ancestry lands. Or the bad one which is the way they are doing till now with discriminations, confrontations and hostilities against the natives and bulling against those standing alongside with them. But if they don’t stop, the situation will get escalated and when it happens it will be very bad for everyone mainly them.

    They will never ever get these very important and historical parts of Begemeder-gonder huge areas under their private ownerships but equally with all Ethiopians as the whole of Ethiopia including these areas are part of Ethiopia.

  19. Mama Ethiopia says:

    Additional facts.

    Wolkite -Tegede is bordering in the North with the Kunama region of Eritrea, with Sudan in the west, with Tembien region of Tigry in the east and it had been always the very historical and important part of Begemeder- Gonder for centuries until TPLF took power by force and did what was/is best for itself including illegally occupying the Wolkite-Tegede region through mass settlements since 1991 in the name of Tigry Kilil.

    It is important to notice and understand how the Ethiopian region maps including Tigry, Gonder and wollo did look like lest say during the league of nations and UN until TPLF took power by force in 1991 and recreated internal maps in the name of Kilil based on its own benefits without considering the historical and practical facts in the region as well as country particularly between Gonder and Tigry and between Wollo and Tigry as it is known Tigry kilil is created with at least 50% its territories illegally and by force taken away from Gonder, wollo and Afar.

    The situation needs peaceful solution. Or else it will not go away but getting worse. And we will see who will win or lose in the end that could may took long but for sure will settle based on historical facts and rights. In the process could cause damages both sides which is not the intere4st of anyone. The choices are in the TPLF, its crazy cadres and rebel minded securities hands.

  20. Absher says:

    Ladies and Gentle men,

    Do you know Tigry province was not only the only among 12 provinces of Ethiopia remained as it was but also more than 50% its current territories are from Gonder, Wollo and Afar while the rest of the provinces were dismembered in pieces in the name of Kilil which was the TPLF main agenda as rebels in order to get and occupy lands don’t belong to them?

    We are talking about wolkite and other regions from Gonder became forcefully and illegally part of Tigry. What about those from Wollo and Afar became part of Tigry kilil with the same approaches?

    Waichew, Debre Damo, Almata, Korem and the likes were part of Wollo. The people were/are predominantly Raya Azebo, Amhara and also Afar. What kind rights do the Raya Azebo, Irob, Afar, Kunama and others have in Tigry today as we know the Amhara have nothing?

  21. Sami says:

    The government must respect the welkayet area people to stay with Amhara kilel. But if shibiya mistaken and try to take advantage of this situation , they are deadly wrong .it will speed up the down fall of shibiya and even Eritrea will be under Ethiopian control .

  22. peaceful Solution is the only way says:

    These decades’ old retarded and old fashion tribal TPLF elements must stop. What they are doing is not only wrong and illegal but very damaging to all sides. . This is not the 1970s, 80s, or 90s, but the 21-century. The whole world knows how they get in and what kind crimes and damages they had caused. They seem are still thinking they can get away behaving the same way they have been doing for decades.

    How come they are none stop laying about everything based on their advantages although their personal things were the only reasons way they became rebels the first place waging civil wars in the country. Do really they think they are making a point here by laying about the Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem wuha zuria regions being part of Tigry rather than the historical part of Gonder since the Time of memorial?

    Wolkite Tegede, Telmet and Alem wuha Zuria are always part of Gonder. The reason why few Tigres were there before TPLF took power in Ethiopia by force was because of they are Ethiopians and they had/have the right to go and live anywhere they want in Ethiopia. 95% Tigrians living today in Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem wuha Zuria region of Tigry are settlers. Since 1991 TPLF did it with determine policy to invade these historical Gonder regions with hundreds of thousands mass Tigre family settlers. Everyone knows that.

    Much of south and south east Tigry today also was always part of wollo before TPLF took power by force and illegally and forcefully made it part of the Tigry Kilil since 1995. Areas such as Maichew, Debre Damo, Alamata, Korem and the likes had been always part of Wollo. However, not only they kept Tigry untouched and remained as it was always before they took power, but also they expanded it with more than 100% from its historical and natural areas by taking illegally huge lands from Gonder and wollo. More than 50% Tigry kilil areas today are from Gonder and wollo illegally and forcefully became part of it since 1995 while the process was started the day they took power and also every time when they entered in those areas as rebels.

    The time of being silent and letting them doing as they wish is over. If they do care about their future, they must stop being stone bolded and dark blinded as they are this moment thinking they are powerful and have arms. Tigry is not a homogeny but there are the number of Ethnic groups living there for centuries including Raya Azebo, Irob, Kunama, Afar and other very distinct Ethnic groups. Their Ethnic policy and worst than that their hateful and damaging behavior against the Amhara will cost them in the long run if they don’t stop what they are doing. If not up to the Amhara protecting them, they would be finished long times ago by others and they know that. Because Tigre and Amhara are not two separate Ethnic groups but one and the same.

    They are continuing causing problems while there are lots of solutions for common benefits and destinations. They must stop declaring nonsense and continuing laying about the historical Gonder territories such as Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem Wuha Zuria being part of Tigry. Everyone knows how Tigry did look like before 1991 and how it looks ever since TPLF took power and became the satanic God in Ethiopia particularly in Gonder and Wollo, getting for free more than 50% the current Tigry territories by force and illegally from these two ancient regions.

    If the Old TPLF cadres are gone and the new ones are becoming mentally healthy and intellectually matured, , by now they would know their old games are no longer working for them but against including the illegally and by force taken lands from Gonder and wollo. Instead they would say themselves and others

    ” we are the same people with the same goals. Therefore, we don’t need boarders between us but peace, unity, freedom and prosperity to all of us. We must think to our children and grand children bringing up them in peace, harmony and unity among us as we are the same people with almost no any significant difference between us. Therefore, lets the Amhara and Tigry live, work, feel good and have the best future together as they wish in Tigry and Amhara. After all we are the same people with the same history and everything. We are the ones creating differences and using those differences as big reasons to worsen the situation both sides. We don’t do that anymore. Instead we do our best in order both people to live together with no human made boarders between them including land demarcation including in the name of kilil.”

    Let the Amhara live, work, get their rights, feel free and home in their own ancestry home lands belong to them since the Time of memorial until the 1995 TPLF kilil policy to annex them illegally and by force such as Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem wuha Zuria from Gonder and other places taken from wollo as well. Let Tigres come to any place in the Amhara region as they wish and the same way let the Amhara to be in Tigry. This way we can create one homogeny smelting pot society for the next generation which is best for everyone.

    However, the old and demagogy TPLF cadres and so called politicians and brainwashed crazy and mindless new TPLF members and the blind folded followers are good enough to worsen the situation than solving it. This will lead to the other levels as the Amhara are no longer watching silently as they did in the past when these sick TPLFs and their blind supporters are continuing doing injustice against them including losing their ancestry lands to Tigry that are more than 50% Tigrys current size. They must stop how they are behaving and what they are doing. Instead they need to do efforts and commitments for peace and unity other than digging graves to bury others while they will be in the end the ones to be swallowed by the graves they are digging for decades. They must know, their era based on stealings, lies, assassinations, imprisonments, killings and taking others territories as big as more than half of today’s Tigry territory is no longer working for them but against.

    Let the Amhara be free, have the rights and feel at home in their historical and legal home lands such as in Wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem Wuha Zuria and also the regions taken from Wollo. This is the first and important step the TPLF cadres must understand and do in order to find an ever lasting solution related to these matters. If they don’t, they will be the worst losers in the end after causing damages against others i.e. the native Amhara in the illegally occupied regions that are part of Tigry since 1995 TPLF kilil policy. They must know more than 95% Tigres currently living in wolkite Tegede, Telemet and Alem Wuha zuria that is more than 35.000 Km2 very fertile lands are settlers came there through the TPLF savage policy of invading these lands through well calculated and implemented mass settlements from Tigry.

  23. Mezmur Fente says:

    The Problem is that ANDM dominated by Seqota Agaw who received a small tract of land named Abergele from Tigray. How on earth Abergele equated with Wolqayet? The main reason why ANDM officials are reluctant not go farther in this issue is associated with this.

  24. jambo desta says:

    osayers ?? You stupid eritrean !! we will be finish U . U R already changed from normal & public government to terrorist junta . til U R trying to destablise our country by sending terrorists giving them milions of dollars rather than constructing your poor country . Why U R forced to send terrorists to destablise our country is that because You can’t confront the gallant & more experieced Ethiopian defense forces in the frontline . If U couldn’t stop destablising the great nation , Ethiopia, as soon as possible , believe me & underline my word we will finish U & dismiss U from the face of the earth . But , I think , may be U R living in safe place , USA or Europe . Peace & development to Ethiopian & Eritrean people , death to osayres & hislikes .

  25. Absher says:

    The problem is not TPLF but TPLF created ANDM Individuals that are Eritreans and TPLF sympathizers in the ANDM are to blame about what is going on there and any other issue related to the amhara region and people all over the country for the last 25 years.

    How come EFFORT which is an organized cartel group created only for the development of Tigry is still continuing able to control each and every lucrative business activity and market in the Amhara region while ALMA Which is the Amhara development organization is in the back feet walking down to hell getting busy for nothing in the cleaning and primitive jobs in its own region that it supposed to take the full control and doing all the developing and improving activities?

    As far as the Wolkite, Tegede, Telemet and other regions from Gonder and wollo issues concern; this is just the warm up before the game is started. Everyone knew from the begining about them not only were wrong but also making intentionally grave mistakes by taking those regions from their historical and ancestral Gonder and wollo regions for pure economic and political reasons.

    However TPLF is not the problem but TPLF created AMDM that is allowing TPLF doing what is doing in the Amhara region and also against the Amhara elsewhere including in Tigry kilil that is created after illegally getting more than 50% its current territory from Gonder and wollo.

    Solve it peacefully and the right ways or else the consequences will be devastating both sides particularly to Tigry. 25 years of silent and waiting to correct the mistakes intentionally done is no longer the case as we are witnessing happening for few years now but taking actions to solve them by the victims.

  26. us for us with us says:

    As long as we are continuing ignoring the causes and instead we are focusing on the symptoms and consequences including with blaming and punishments, there will be no solution to both sides. The root causes about what happened in Gonder and other places in the region are still fresh and well alive for more than 20 years in Tigryi Kilil related to the Setit Humera and Wolkite Tegede matters.

    However, sadly Medias, organizations and individuals associated with Tigryi and TPLF are saying nothing about the causes that are in Tigryi they are responsible for but what happened in Gonder and elsewhere as the results. It looks like they are trying to ignore or hide the causes as if they are not existed because of they are against their advantages and have no case to support it. They are in the mission getting busy trying to take the people attentions and understandings away from the main causes which is impossible and will never happen. It is better earlier than later to talk about it openly and frankly face to face with the natives in order to find the right solutions before things are reaching to the no turning back stages.

    Ethiopia needs no kilil boundaries that are only 20 years old and done by the few based on own interests and advantages at the expense of others. What Ethiopia needs is the whole of Ethiopia. However, as long as Kilil policy based on ethnicity is there, the issues related to Setit Humera, Wolkite, Tegede and other places in Tigryi must be addressed by respecting the native population rights according to the country constitution. If not, change that constitution and make it working the ways the 21-century society needs and deserves for the sake of best results and benefits to all which is the long term solution.

  27. kassa says:

    Messages from Begemeder Gonder including wolkite.

    We are not only living together in peace, unity and harmony for centuries but also committed to protect each other and die for one another with Tigrians and all Ethiopians. The recent incident is not the result of the innocent and victim Tigrans as the rest of Ethiopians are but the long standing problem by few individuals organized activities in the name of Tigry while they have been doing all along for their own egos and benefits.

    Therefore, what the TPLF cadres and officials as well as their fanatic sympathizers are doing is not new but trying to create tensions between the Amhara and Tigry people in order to continue getting supports from the innocent and victim Tigrians. EBC and other Medias that are under breathing under the TPLF rules accusations against the Begemder Gonder people are not only wrong but also dangerous. Instead of finding the solutions by talking about the matters causing the problems related to Wolkite Tegede, they are trying to create divisions among the people as usual based on Ethnicity to worsen the situation.

    Amhara and Tigre are living together as one people including in Gonder for thousands years. We are the same people. We do things together during good or bad times. Those affected by the incidents are not targeted because of they are Tigrians but those part of the TPLF policy working against us. In return they are living lavish lives and are business owners and milliners while we know them who they were, how they became the way they are and what they do in return not to the community they are living but TPLF and its agenda.

    What we are warning to ECB and TPLF is to stop spreading lies about us in order to create tensions between Amhara and Tigre not only in Gonder or the region but also all over the country. What they must understand is that these two people are living together for thousands years and they never fought against each other based on Ethnicity matters. This is not happening and will never happen in the future, either.

    Instead together we will fight against those causing injustice and damages either of them separately of both of us together which is happening right now. The TPLF known behavior and existence has no other choices because of it doesn’t want but having Tigrians on its sides against the rest for its temporary survivals. The Sebehat Nega TPLF is born from hate, grown up with hate, living with hate and will die in hate. They even rewarded him a live achievement award for being this way. Did/do the people of Tigry have any say about it? No.

    So, there is no reason to blame or being hostile against the innocent Tigreans in Tigry, Begemeder Gonder including Wolkite or the whole of Ethiopia but those TPLF members, cadres, sympathizers that are benefiting from including those in Gonder having big businesses and lavish life while we know who they are and what they do against the citizens based on the TPLF policy.

    EBC is doing wrong by being the TPLF personal propaganda machine including spreading lies about the incident in Gonder. The incident in Gonder didn’t target anyone because of he/she is Tigre but the few TPLF agents that are among us having businesses and lavish lives as a result of their relationship with TPLF.

    One thing must be clear and that is no one will target any Tigrean because of he/she is Tigre. We have lived together for centuries and we will continue doing so. But we will not tolerate those affecting both of us by creating hatred involved divisions because of it is good for them. As we speak, Tigreans are living happily and peacefully together with the rest of the citizens as usual. ECB needs to ask questions the ordinary and innocent Tigreans in Begemeder Gonder before answering the wrong answers describing them as if they have been targeted because of their Ethnicity. We don’t see our differences through Ethnicity because of we are the same people doing all things together.

    So, ECB needs to stop spreading lies about us in order to exacerbate the situation between us which is not going to happen. This is the known TPLF tactic creating tensions between people based on Ethnicity in order to get what it wants which is support as usual comes from Tigrians despite they are its first and longest home base victims. We all know that and we will not allow ourselves to be fallen to the TPLF tricks to affect all of us for its own survivals. The country belongs to the people; not the few rebels or carders that are there for their own lavish lives and richness at the cost of the mass. Their ethnic policy and kilil are the worst to happen, biggest punishment and huge losses the people are suffering from on daily basis.

  28. eliyas says:

    Anything done by force will be undone by force. I am afraid , when Issayas said he gave ethiopia a 100 yrs homework, he meant exactly what is now we witness in gondar. Neither TPLF nor the brotherly tigrean people will benefit from engaging in armed conflict against the amharas that includes wolqait/tegede brothers.
    It was just a matter of when not if the conflict will erupt. The solution is to let the true referendum of the wolqait people takes place and respect their choice. The federal government and security force should never involve in conflicts such as this one especially taking side will only aggravate the situation. The solution is simple just conduct the referendum and close the chapter of this conflict. The current leadership of Tigrai can play a constructive role by just doing what the people are asking which is giving the a chance to decide their fate. Otherwise, we might have seen the beginning of the end of peaceful coexistence the two brotherly people who worked like finger and glove to preserve ethiopian territorial integrity and sovereignty. Those who think the amhara moral and fighting zeal is dead and gone never to comeback are proven to be dead wrong.

  29. Abegaz says:

    This is the most critical and dangerous situation the world is facing since the end of the second WW and certainly since the end of colonization/English Empire. No nation is feeling immune and safe anymore including USA, Russia, France, UK, Turkey, Germany, Middle East, Latin America, Africa, Europe and almost all nations. It is important to say that China, Japan and some nations in the east are in less vulnerable and dangerous situation. The reason is because of the peace and unity among the citizens and the determination and bravery of the Government policies by doing things on time for the sake of the nations; putting the majority at the centre of the systems and rules.

    Ethiopian leaders must aware the danger the region and Africa as a whole is facing in the ways looking like the Middle East that is in turmoil because of its own weaknesses and failures; allowing foreign powers to get their ways in internal matters until it losses the national matters out of its control. Ethiopians also must aware about this and they always must commit to find the right solutions for their problems with more sacrifices and efforts than destroying the nation because carelessness and anger.

    The Ethiopian military, security and spy agencies must be free from any local or ethnic based politics and activities. Instead they must be always ready and capable to serve the nation safety, security and unity in order to keep us from falling to the fire and poison propaganda wars including by Ethiopians and none Ethiopians from Abroad as well as at home.

    Ethiopia needs no one from abroad to tell her what to do but taking advice and supports when she finds it will help her. However, the government must wake up and understand the huge changes in the world that are demanding changes in the countries as well as among the citizens in order to preserve the peace, unity and prosperity of the nation. Look at what is going on in USA because of religion, race and most importantly wealth differences and discriminations among the citizens supported by officials, Media, scholars, criminals, racists, institutions, organization and so on based own affiliation and benefits.

    Therefore, the EPRDF government must not harden and as a result worsen the situation among the citizens based on its 25 years ago Kilil and ethnic policy but trying to weaken it for smooth and slow changes among the citizens towards one nation and one people principles based on equality, respect and understanding. This is a very dangerous time the 21-century world is facing. It needs smart, wise, determine, well intended, confident and hard working leaders to keep us safe and continuing developing.

    The issues did cause the situation in Gonder must be identified and solved knowing they are legitimate issues. All conflicts are always solved the right ways only through peacefully approaches. Riots, chaos, destructions, killings and the likes are benefiting no one but affecting all as far as the national levels. The government must talk to the wolkit people as they are saying they are trying to talk for years but they didn’t get the right responds till now. The national Police, securities and military are not there to face the peaceful causes but to keep the peace and protect the nation.

    So, watch out and take the biggest look what is going on worldwide in terms of safety, security, unity and peace within among the population and between nations or regions. Ethiopia must play her best here in order to keep her out of the mess the world is facing and the worst is not yet even started happening. China is the best Example to learn from for keeping 1.4 billion people (1/5 of the world population) under one government rule with peace, unity and prosperity.

    Have another and workable look towards Ethnic policy and kilil for the sake of the nation matching the 21-century society demands as citizens to bring them closer and bond them together. The 25 years old Kilil and ethnic policy will not work in the 21-century as it is when boarders between nations are gone, the world is many times connected with one another through internet and many dramatic changes are happening ever since. So, don’t spend your valuable time, energy and resources trying to harden the maters that are dividing and separating the citizens but otherwise which is initiating and supporting to bring them clothier for best destination together.

    Ethiopians must not listen rhetoric and inflammatory propaganda wars coming from anyone including those so called Ethiopians. Instead they always must find the easiest and best ways to solve their situations and that are peaceful approaches with talks and agreements. Damaging properties or killing lives benefits no one but badly hurts both victims and affect the country. The government must play its positive role here.

    The wolkite Tegede issue has been always there and was in the people’s mind ever since it started decades ago. This is the time to solve it peacefully rather than trying to use forces as it was the case in the past and did work for the time being but didn’t solve the problems instead it has worsening to the current levels.

  30. ethoash says:

    u never wonder why แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด and Gambella opposed development?

    i dont think they opposed development in my book they want to be part of the development to this end any development that come to their region must pay development tax

    let say if the sugar factory and the sugar farm pay ten million to use the land in แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด by now the แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด welcome them instead of opposing them

    Ethiopian government should over look this development tax …as cost it would be good business in long run to make peace with the local

    yes แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด might say all kind of thing but at the end it is all about the money no body share with them that is why they r fighting the government look the damage they did

  31. Muchie says:

    แˆฐแˆžแŠ‘แŠ• แ‹จแŠจแˆธแˆแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฑแˆญแŠญ แ‹จแˆ˜แแŠ•แ‰…แˆˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆฅแ‰ต แˆ™แŠจแˆซ แˆˆแ‰ฅแ‹แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆˆแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‰ตแˆแˆ…แˆญแ‰ต แˆฐแŒฅแ‰ถ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆ แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆตแˆˆแŠ›แˆแข แ‹จแ‰ฑแˆญแŠฉ แ•แˆฌแ‹šแ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ต แŠขแˆญแ‹ถแŒ‹แŠ• CNN แŠจแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆแ‹ แ‹จแŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แ‰ดแˆŒแ‰ชแ‹ฅแŠ• แŒฃแ‰ฅแ‹ซ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ฃแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ‰แ‰ต แ‰ƒแˆˆ แˆแˆแˆแˆต แ‹จแ‹šแˆ… แˆดแˆซ แŒ แŠ•แˆณแˆฝแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹แˆšแŠแ‰ต แˆตแˆ แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแŠ• แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆฐแ‹ แˆแ‰ตแ‹ˆแˆ‹แˆ… แŒ‰แˆˆแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แŠ แˆณแˆแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ตแ‰ตแˆฐแŒฅ แ‰ แ‹ญแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŒ แ‹ญแ‰ แ‰ฃแŠ•แŠญแˆฎ แŒˆแˆแ€แ‹‹แˆแข “แŠ แ‰ถ แŒ‰แˆˆแŠ•แŠฎ แ‰ แ‰ฑแˆญแŠญ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‰ แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แ‹จแˆฝแ‰ฅแˆญ แˆ˜แ‹แŒˆแ‰ฅ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠ แˆแ‰ฐแˆ˜แ‹˜แŒˆแ‰กแˆ” แ‰ฅแˆ‹ แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠ›แ‹‹ แˆˆแŒ แ‹จแ‰€แ‰ธแ‹ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แ•แˆฌแ‹šแ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆฐแŒกแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆแˆต แŠ แˆญแŠช แŠแ‰ แˆญแข “แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซ แŠกแˆณแˆ› แ‰ฅแˆ‹แ‹ฐแŠ• แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆช แŠแ‹ แ‰ฅแˆ‹ แŠ แแŒ‹แŠ’แˆตแ‰ณแŠ• แˆตแ‰ตแ‹˜แˆแ‰ตแฃ แ‹จแŠ แแŒ‹แŠ’แˆตแ‰ณแŠ• แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŠฆแˆณแˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆช แŠแ‹ แŠ แˆ‹แˆˆแˆ แŠแ‰ แˆญ แข” แ‹จแˆšแˆแข แŠ แˆแ‰ฐแˆณแŠซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹จแŠฅแŠ›แ‹Žแ‰น แŒแˆˆแŠ•แˆ แŠฅแŠ แ‰ฅแˆญแˆƒแŠ‘ แŠแŒ‹ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ด แŠแ‹ แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แŠ“ แแˆ‹แŒŽแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แŠแ‹แข แ‰ แŠ แ‹ญแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแ‹จแ‹ แˆแˆ›แ‰ต แˆตแˆˆแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹ฉแ‰ต แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแฃ แˆˆแŠฆแˆฎแˆž แˆ•แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ฐแŒจแŠ•แ‰€แ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แŒ แแ‰ทแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ แŠจแˆƒแ‹ซ แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ…แ‹‹แˆ‹ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŠแˆฑแ‰ตแข แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ•แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ญแŠจแ‹แแˆแŠ“แˆแฃ แŠฆแˆฎแˆžแŠ“ แ‹ˆแ‹ซแŠ”แฃ แ‰ฅแŠ แ‹ดแŠ•แŠ“ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ“แ‰ต แ‹ซแŒฃแˆ‹แˆแŠ“แˆ แฃ แŠจแ‹แ‹ซแˆ แŠฅแŠ› แˆฅแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŒ‰แ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ•แˆ‹แˆˆแŠ• แŠแ‹ แˆตแˆแ‰ฑแข แˆตแˆˆแ‹šแˆ… แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ•/แ‰ต แŠขแˆญแ‹ฐแŒŽแŠ• แŠ แˆœแˆญแŠซ แŠ แŒˆแˆฏ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆธแŒ‰แ‰ต แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆแˆ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ‹แˆแˆแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆฐแŒงแ‰ต แˆ˜แŒ แ‹จแ‰… แ‰ตแ‰ฝแˆ‹แˆˆแ‰ฝแข

  32. eliyas says:

    There are some elements who foment hatred and venomous propaganda in order to ascend to power by any means necessary. There are also those who want to cling to power forever at any cost. The vicious propaganda between the two is eating away the sole of ethiopia and ethiopinas that was there for thousands of years.
    The current gondar conflict and the loss of innocent lives could have been prevented had the ruling front and TPLF could see things far from their nostrils. Some TPLF supporters are mentioning history from 16 century when they defended their stance of taking wolqait/tegede away from the amhara administration while in fact the honorable Mengesha siyoum squarely rejected this cooked up notion and confirmed the fact that at no time in hx wolkait was part of Tigray. I am sure judging by the recent conflict it may not be easy to take away those places which were part of gonder since immemorial. Now, it must be clear that the gonderes are feeling that they are being disrespected and want to prove that they are also men who are willing and capable of wagging a war to protect what they feel is theirs. I put the blame squarely on the current ruling group who failed to see the repercussion of their action to redraw borders without the consent of the local people. In any democratic society, the voice of the people is paramount. Specially the TPLF people who fought a protracted war to bring justice to all should know this better than any other member of the coalition. History teaches us no group can subjugate the whole people for ever. The best thing is to let the referendum and respect the choice of the people and done with this conflict. Those who say the people decided 25 years ago to be part of tigray are the very people who are responsible for the death of innocent people during the recent conflict in gondar. The wise leaders never open a door for future fratricidal war. They rather close the door through honest discussion and give and take approach.

  33. แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ says:

    แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ โ€œแ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แŠแ‹โ€ แ‰ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ตแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆแˆจแŒ€แ‹แŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆˆแˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แŠจ1968 แ‹“.แˆ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แŠ แ‰…แ‹ถ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠแˆณแ‹แŠ“ แŠฅแˆซแˆฑแŠ• โ€œแ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠแƒ แŠ แ‹แŒญโ€ แ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แˆซแ‹ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แˆˆแŠ แˆˆแ‰แ‰ต 25 แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ณแˆ‹แ‰‹แŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ณแ‹Š แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แ‰ แˆƒแ‹ญแˆ แŠจแ‰ฐแ‰†แŒฃแŒ แˆจ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แˆˆแˆƒแŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ตแŒˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆแŠ“ แŠแƒแŠแ‰ต แ‰ณแˆ‹แ‰… แ‹แˆˆแ‰ณแŠ• แ‹จแ‹‹แˆ‰แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ™แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แˆแŒแ‰ฃแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แŠ•แ‰ฑ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹แ‹ต แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝ แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ… แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‰ แŒแ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆตแˆญแฃ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹ญแฃ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆฐแ‹ตแ‹ตแŠ“แฃ แˆฒแŒˆแ‹ตแˆแค แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰ปแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆแ€แˆแŠ• แŠ แ‹ญแŠ• แ‹ซแ‹ˆแŒฃ แŒแแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹˜แˆญ แˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ƒแ‹ˆแˆ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แŠฅแˆซแˆฑ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠฅแŒˆแ‹›แ‰ แ‰ณแˆˆแˆ แ‰ แˆšแˆˆแ‹ แˆ…แŒ แŒญแˆแˆญ แ‰ แŒแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แŒ‹แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆซแŒ…แ‰ฐแ‹ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แˆˆแ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แแ‰ตแˆ…แŠ•แŠ“ แŠแƒแŠแ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ แŒ แ‹จแ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แ‰ณแŒ‹แ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ˜แŠจแˆซแŠ• แŠฅแ‹ซแˆแˆซแˆจแ‰€ แ‰ แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰†แ‹จแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ตแค

    แ‹›แˆฌแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‰ตแˆ‹แŠ•แ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅแŠ• แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แ‰ แˆƒแ‹ญแˆแฃ แ‰ แŒแ‹ตแ‹ซแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แˆแŠ“ แŠจแˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹แŒญ แ‰ แ‰ฃแˆ…แˆชแ‹ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹แ‰€แ‹ โ€œแ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠแƒ แŠ แ‹แŒญโ€ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• โ€œแŠฅแŠ› แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‰ตแŒแˆฌแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแŠ•แˆโ€ โ€œแ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆ˜แŠซแˆˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ• แŠ แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰€แ‹ฐแˆ แˆฒแˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠแ‰ แˆญแŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ/แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆแŠ•แŠซแˆˆแˆ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆโ€ แ‹จแˆšแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Š แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„แŠ• แŠ แŠ•แŒแ‰ แ‹ แˆˆแŠ แˆˆแ‰แ‰ต 18 แ‹ˆแˆซแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ˜แˆ‹แ‹แŠ• แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ…แŒ‹แ‹Š แŠแˆญแˆ›แŠ“ แ‹แŠญแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹ แŠจแˆšแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ“แ‰ต แ‰ขแˆฎแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แŒแ‹ฐแˆฌแˆฝแŠ• แˆแŠญแˆญแ‰คแ‰ต แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‰ฅแ‹™ แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆ›แ‹‹แŠจแ‰ฅแŠ• แ‰ณแŒแˆฐแ‹ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แˆฒแ‹ซแ‰€แˆญแ‰ก แ‹จแŠจแˆจแˆ™แ‰ตแŠ• แ‰แˆญแŒ แŠ›แŠ“ แ…แŠ‘ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝ แ‹ณแŒแˆ แ‰ แŒแ แˆŠแ‹ซแˆตแˆญแฃ แˆŠแ‹ซแˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹ญแŠ“แฃ แˆŠแŒˆแ‹ตแˆ แŒจแˆˆแˆ›แŠ• แ‰ฐแŒˆแŠ• แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แˆฒแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆต โ€œแˆแŒ†แ‰ผแŠ• แˆˆแŠ แ‹แˆฌ แŠ แˆณแˆˆแŒ แŠ แˆแˆฐแŒฅแˆ!โ€ แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‹ แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‰ฐแˆ˜แŒฃแŒฃแŠ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แ‰ฐแˆฐแŒฅแ‰ถแ‰ณแˆแข
    แ‹˜แˆจแŠ› แˆตแˆญแ‹“แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แˆตแ‹ˆแŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‹ฒแˆžแŠญแˆซแˆฒแ‹ซแ‹Š แˆตแˆญแ‹“แ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠซแ‰ต แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ซแŠจแˆธแˆแ‹ แ‹จแ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆจแˆซแŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แŒซแ‹แˆชแ‹Žแ‰น แŒซแŒซแ‰ณ โ€“ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ต แŠจแˆแˆแˆŒ 5, 2008 แ‹“.แˆ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แ‹แŠ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• โ€œแ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ›แŠ•แŠแ‰ตโ€ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แŠ แ‰…แˆซแ‰ข แŠฎแˆšแ‰ด แŠ แ‰ฃแˆแ‰ตแŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญแŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆˆแˆ›แˆธแ‰ แˆญ แ‰ฃแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแ‹ แ‹จแ‹แŠ•แ‰ฅแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ฃแˆญ แŒ€แŒแŠ“แ‹แŠ“ แ‰ณแŒ‹แˆน แ‹จแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ฃแˆณแ‹จแ‹ แ‰ณแˆ‹แ‰… แŒ€แŒแŠ•แŠแ‰ต แˆˆแŠ แˆแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแˆ›แˆซแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆซแ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹‹แ‰€แˆจแ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แ‹แŠ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แˆ˜แˆซแˆญ แ‹จแˆฝแŠ•แˆแ‰ต แ…แ‹‹แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแŒ‹แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆˆแŒแˆแŠžแ‰ฝแŠ“ แˆˆแŒจแ‰‹แŠžแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆฐแŒ แ‹แŠ• แ‰ฐแˆ˜แŒฃแŒฃแŠ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แ‹ณแŒแˆ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ›แ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแ…แ แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แ‰ฅแˆแˆแข

    โ€œแ‹จแˆžแŠ แŠฅแˆˆแ‰…แˆถแฃ แˆ˜แˆแˆถ แˆ˜แˆ‹แˆแˆถโ€ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ‰แค แŠ แ‹แŠ™แŠ“ แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แŠจแŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹จแŒˆแŒ แˆ˜แ‹แŠ• แ‹จแŠ แ€แ‹ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ƒแŒฃ แ‹จแ‰ แ‰€แˆ แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แˆˆแˆ›แˆตแˆ˜แˆฐแˆแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ฐแ‹ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ“แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‰€แˆšแˆต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ˆแˆธแ‰… แ‹ซแˆ˜แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แŒ‰แŠ•แŒญ แŠ แˆแ‹แŠ“ แŠ แˆฐแˆแ‰ฝแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆแŒ แˆซ แ‹แŠ•แŒ€แˆ‹ แ‰ แ•แˆฎแ–แŒ‹แŠ•แ‹ณ แˆ›แˆฝแŠ–แ‰น แ‰ แŠฉแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆƒแŒˆแˆญ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆตแˆ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰‹แ‰‹แˆ™ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹จแŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ฐแŒ‹แˆช แ‰ฐแ‰‹แˆ›แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆปแ‹ แŒ แแŒฅแŽ แ‰ แˆฐแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แˆปแŠ•แŒ‰แˆŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ถแ‰นแŠ“ แ‹จแŠญแˆแˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‰ แŠฉแˆ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‹แ‹˜แŠแ‰ฅแŠ• แ‹ญแŒˆแŠ›แˆแข

    แ‰ แ‰…แ‹ตแˆšแ‹ซ แŒแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠแƒ แŠ แ‹แŒญ แแˆฝแˆตแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ แ‹แŠ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แ‰ฐแŠ•แŠณแˆฝแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠแˆณแ‹ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Š แ‰แŒฃ แ‹ซแŠแŒฃแŒ แˆจแ‹แค

    1แŠ›. แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆจแŒฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝแŠ• แˆŠแ‹ซแแŠ‘ แ‰ แˆžแŠจแˆฉแŠ“ แŠจแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒก แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‰…แŒฅแˆจแŠ› แŠแ‰ฅแˆฐ แŒˆแ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แŠฅแŠฉแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ฃแˆญ แ‰ แŠจแŠแˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠซแˆแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŠจแ‰ฐแˆ‰แ‰ต แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แฆ

    แˆƒแˆˆแ‰ƒ แ€แŒ‹แ‹ฌ แ‰ แˆญแˆ„ (แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแˆแˆ แ•แˆฌแ‹˜แ‹ณแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแŠ“ แŠ แˆแŠ• โ€œแ€แˆจ -แˆฝแ‰ฅแˆญโ€ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแˆแ‹ถ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แˆซแ‹ แ‹จแŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆชแ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แ‹แŠ™ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ‘ แŠ แ‹›แ‹ฅแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆช)
    แˆ˜แ‰ฅแˆซแ‰ฑ แŒˆ/แŠฅแŒแ‹šแŠ แ‰ฅแˆ”แˆญ โ€“ แŠ แˆฐแ‹ แŠชแˆฎแˆต
    แ‹ฉแˆƒแŠ•แˆต แ‰ฐแŠญแˆ‹แ‹ญ โ€“ แŒˆแ‰ฅแˆฉ แŒˆ/แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆ…แŠ•
    แˆแˆตแŠญแˆญ แ‰ฐแˆตแ‹แ‚แ‹ŽแŠ• โ€“ แˆณแˆ…แˆŒ แˆƒแ‹ฑแˆฝ
    2แŠ›. แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰€แ‹ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‰ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แˆ˜แ‰ถแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แŒ แˆฉ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆซแˆ‰แข แ‹ญแˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹จแŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแˆ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ต โ€œแ‰ตแŒแˆฌโ€ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แŠ แˆแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ตแˆแข แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰แŒฃ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแŠแ‹ฐแ‹ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‰€แŠ•แ‹ฐแŠ› แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แˆแŠ“แ‹ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ฐแ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ‹แˆ‹แŠชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ“ แˆฐแˆ‹แ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แข แˆˆแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ณแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ™แˆ‰ แˆ›แˆจแŒ‹แŒˆแŒซ แˆŠแˆฐแŒฅ แ‹ญแ‹ˆแ‹ณแˆแข

    แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Š แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ฑ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแŠ•แŒแ‹ต แ‰ฐแ‰‹แˆ›แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ˜แˆฝแŒˆแ‹ แ‰ แŠ•แŒแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠ แŒˆแˆแŒแˆŽแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆตแŒซ แ‰ฐแ‰‹แˆ›แ‰ต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแˆ›แˆฉ แ‹จแ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แˆฐแˆ‹แ‹ญแŠ“ แ‰ฐแˆ‹แˆ‹แŠชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ•แค แŠจแŠแ‹šแˆ… แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‹จแŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแˆ แˆฐแ‹ แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ต แ‰ แ‹˜แˆฉ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แŠ แˆแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ตแˆแข แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Šแ‹ แ‰แŒฃ แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแŠ แˆแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒก แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ถแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ฐแˆฝแŠจแˆญแŠซแˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ตแŠ•แ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แ‰€แŒฅแ‰ณ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘แŠ“ แ‰ แˆตแˆˆแˆ‹ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฐแˆฐแˆ›แˆญแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝแŠ• แˆˆแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠฅแˆญแ‹ตแŠ“ แŠ แˆแŠ“ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆ˜แ‰ปแ‰น แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แˆฐแˆ‹แ‹ฎแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‰ฐแˆ‹แˆ‹แŠชแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠแ‹แข

    แˆˆแˆ›แˆณแ‹ซ แ‹ซแˆ…แˆ แŠจแŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแˆšแ‰ฃแˆ‰แ‰ต แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠซแŠจแˆ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆƒแ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‰ แŒแˆ›แˆฝ แŒŽแŠ‘ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ…แŠ“ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แแˆญแ‹แˆช แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰น แˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แ‰แˆ›แˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŒซแ‹Žแ‰ต แˆตแŒแ‰ฅแŒแ‰ฅ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ•แฃ แˆŒแˆ‹แŠ›แ‹ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‹จแŠ แˆญแˆ›แŒญแˆ† แ‰ตแ‹แˆแ‹ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ“ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แแˆญแ‹แˆช แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจ แ‰ฐแˆซ แŒแˆˆแˆ แ‰ฅ แŠแ‹แข แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰แŒฃ แ‹จแŠแ‹ฐแ‹ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแŠ“ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠแ‹แข แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŒแ‰ฅแˆจ-แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠแ‹แข

    แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ†แŠ– แŠฅแ‹ซแˆˆ แ‰ แˆฐแˆœแŠ• แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แ‹แˆฎแ“ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆซแ‰ต โ€œแ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ โ€˜แ‰ตแŒแˆฌโ€™ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‹˜แˆญแŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แ‹ฐแˆจแˆ แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹โ€ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹ แŒ‰แŠ•แŒญ แŠ แˆแ‹ แˆ™แŒแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฉแŠธแ‰ต โ€œแŒ…แˆซแ แŠฅแˆซแˆฑ แŒˆแˆญแŽ แŠฅแˆซแˆฑ แ‹ญแŒฎแˆƒแˆ!โ€ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแŠ แ‰ แ‹ แ‰ฅแˆ‚แˆ แ‹ซแˆตแ‰ณแ‹แˆฐแŠ“แˆแข

    แ‹จแŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆซแ‰ต (แ‹จแŠญแˆแˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆฐแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฃแˆ‰แ‰ตแŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แˆปแŠ•แŒ‰แˆŠแ‰ถแ‰ฝ แˆณแ‹ญแŒจแˆแˆญ) แˆฐแˆžแŠ‘แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ˆแŒกแ‰ตแŠ• แˆ˜แŒแˆˆแŒซ แŠ แ‹ญแˆ‰แ‰ต แŒซแŒซแ‰ณ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ณแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆแˆณแŠ แŒแ‰แ‹“แŠ• แŠ แ…แŠ•แŠฆแ‰ต แˆ แŒฅแ‰ถ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆแŠญแ‰ถแ‰ณแˆแข แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ฑแˆ แฆ

    โ€œแ‹แˆป แ‰ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ญแŒฎแˆƒแˆโ€ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แŒแˆˆแŒซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แแแˆ แŒญแแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แŒˆแˆˆแˆแ‰ฐแŠ› แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‹แŠซแ‰ฐแ‰ฐ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹ญแˆแ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆƒแŒˆแˆญ แ‰คแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แแแˆ›แ‹Š แ‰แŒฅแŒฅแˆญ แˆตแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แ‹จแ•แˆฎแ–แŒ‹แŠ•แ‹ณ แˆ›แˆฝแŠ–แ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแŒกแ‰ตแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹›แ‰ฃ แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹จแˆแŒ แˆซ แŠญแˆต แˆ˜แˆ แˆจแ‰ต แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ‰ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แข
    โ€œแŠ แ‰ฃแ‰ฑ แ‹ณแŠ›แฃ แˆแŒ แ‰€แˆ›แŠ›โ€ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆซแ‰ต แŠฅแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแˆณแˆฝแค แŠฅแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แŒฃแˆชแค แŠฅแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆแˆซแŒ…แŠ“แฃ แŠฅแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰€แŒญ แˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹จแ‰€แˆจแ‰กแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แข
    แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แŒŠแ‹œแ‹ซแ‰ต แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆจแŒฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แŒ‹แ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แแ‰ตแˆ… แ‹จแŒ แ‹จแ‰แ‰ตแŠ• แˆแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆฝแแ‰ณ แ‰ แˆŒแˆŠแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹จแˆ„แ‹ฐ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแแŠแ‹แŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แˆฝแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แŒ แˆฉแ‰ตแŠ• แŠ•แแˆƒแŠ• แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แ‹จแˆ›แŒแˆชแ‹ซ แŠซแˆแ‘ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŒแ‹˜แ‹แŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹จแ‹แŠ• แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑแŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แŒˆแ‹›แ‹ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแˆฐแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆ‹แ‹ฉ แˆฒแ‹ซแˆแ‰ แ‹จแŠ–แˆฉแŠ“ แŠจแŠ•แŒฝแˆƒแŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰ปแ‰ฝแŠ• แŒŽแŠ• แ‰†แˆ˜แ‹ แŠ แŒ‹แˆญแŠแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แŠ แˆณแ‹ญแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹แ‰ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญแˆแฆ
    แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆซแˆน แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‰€แŒญแŠ• แ‰ตแŠฅแ‹›แ‹ แŠจแŒ‰แˆซแˆแˆญแ‹ณ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แ‰คแŠ•แˆปแŠ•แŒ‰แˆ แ‰ แŒˆแ แˆฒแˆแŠ“แ‰€แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแ‹ฐแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆจแŒ แ‹ แ‹จแˆƒแŒˆแˆฉ แŠญแแˆ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹˜แ‹‹แ‹ˆแˆจแŠ“ แˆฐแˆญแ‰ถ แ‹จแˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ฑ แ‰ฐแŠแแŒŽแ‰ต แˆฒแˆณแ‹ฐแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰ แŒˆแ‹ฐแˆ แˆฒแ‹ˆแˆจแ‹ˆแˆญ แ‹ญแˆแ‰แŠ•แˆ โ€œแŒซแŠซแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแ‹ซแ‹ˆแ‹ฐแˆ™ แ‰ แˆ›แˆตแ‰ธแŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แŠแ‹โ€ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆ แˆฒแˆ‹แŒˆแŒฅแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฝ แˆฐแ‰ฅแŠ แ‹ŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆฐแˆแ‰ทแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ตแˆแƒแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆ›แˆฐแˆ›แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆณแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แฃ
    แ‹จแˆ™แˆตแˆŠแˆ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠ แˆแˆ‹แˆ‹แŒŠ แŠฎแˆšแ‰ด แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ต แ‰ แŒแ แˆฒแ‰€แŒ แ‰€แŒกแŠ“ แ‰ แŒจแˆˆแˆ› แˆฒแŒฃแˆ‰ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฝ แ‹ซแˆ‹แˆ‰แฃ
    แŠฅแŠ แŠ แ‰ถ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑแŠ แˆˆแˆ แŠ แˆซแŒŒแฃ แŠ แ‰ถ แ‰ แ‰€แˆˆ แŒˆแˆญแ‰ฃแฃ แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠ› แŠฅแˆตแŠญแŠ•แ‹ตแˆญ แŠแŒ‹แฃ แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠ› แ‹แ‰ฅแˆธแ‰ต แ‰ณแ‹ฌ โ€ฆ แ‹ˆแ‹˜แ‰ฐ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰ แŠ•แŒฝแˆƒแŠ• แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠแŠแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แŠ แˆ˜แˆˆแŠซแŠจแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŒฅแ‰ฅแ‰…แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰†แˆ›แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹จแŠซแŠ•แŒ‹แˆฎ แแˆญแ‹ต แ‰คแ‰ต แ‰ แŒแ แ‰ฐแˆแˆญแ‹ถแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แˆฐแ‰ฅแŠ แ‹Š แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฐแŒˆแŽ แ‰ แŠฅแˆตแˆญ แˆฒแˆ›แ‰…แ‰ แ‹แˆแ‰ณแŠ• แ‹จแˆ˜แˆจแŒกแฃ
    แ‹จแŠ แ‹ฒแˆต แŠ แ‰ แ‰ฃแŠ• แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแˆญ แ•แˆ‹แŠ• แ‰ตแŒแ‰ แˆซแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹ˆแˆ™ แŠ•แŒฝแˆƒแŠ• แ‹จแŠฆแˆฎแˆž แ‹ˆแŒฃแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆ›แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แŒแ แˆฒแŒˆแ‹ฐแˆ‰แŠ“ แ‹จแŠฆแˆฎแˆž แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ แŒˆแ‹› แ‰€แ‹ฌแ‹ แŠจ400 แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ•แแˆƒแŠ• แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แˆแˆž แ‰ฐแŠณแˆพแ‰ฝ แˆฒแŒˆแ‹ตแˆ‰แ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ตแŠ•แแˆฝ แ‹ซแˆ‹แˆ‰แฃ
    แ‰ฃแˆณแˆˆแแŠแ‹ แ‹ˆแˆญ แŠจ30 แˆบแˆ… แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ•แแˆƒแŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹Šแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แŠญแˆจแˆแ‰ต แˆ˜แŠ–แˆชแ‹ซ แ‰คแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แˆƒแ‹ญแˆ แˆแˆญแˆถแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แˆœแ‹ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฒแŒฃแˆ‰แŠ“ แˆ…แƒแŠ“แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ แˆจแŒ‹แ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แŒˆแ‹› แˆƒแŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แˆ…แŒ‹แ‹ŠแŠแ‰ต แˆฝแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰†แˆปแˆป แ‹จแ‰ตแˆ แˆฒแ‹ˆแ‹ตแ‰ แ‹ตแˆแƒแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‹แˆฐแˆ™แฃ
    แ‰ แŒ‹แˆแ‰คแˆ‹แฃ แ‰ แŠฆแŒ‹แ‹ดแŠ•แฃ แ‰ แŠ แ‹แˆญแฃ แ‰ แˆถแˆ›แˆŒ โ€ฆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ แˆˆแˆ แ‹ซแ‹ˆแŒˆแ‹˜แ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ€แ‹จแˆแ‹ แŒญแแŒจแ‹แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆซแˆน แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แˆฒแˆแ€แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ‹แ‹ แˆƒแŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆฉ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แแ‰ตแˆ…แŠ“ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แ‰ แˆ›แŒฃแ‰ต แˆƒแŒˆแˆฉ แˆฒแŠฆแˆ แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ แ‰ต แˆฒแˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹ญแŠ“ แˆฒแˆณแ‹ฐแ‹ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แŠ“แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ซแˆแ‹ฐแˆแˆฉแŠ“ แ‹›แˆฌแˆ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹แˆแ‰ณแŠ• แ‹จแˆ˜แˆจแŒก แˆฒแˆ†แŠ‘แฃ
    แ‹›แˆฌ แŒแŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹แˆฝแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ แ‹แŠ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ฐแ‹ แŠ•แแˆƒแŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ˆแŠชแˆŽแ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ“ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆŠแ‹ซแแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆฝแแ‰ณ แ‰ แˆŒแˆŠแ‰ต แˆฒแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆต แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰แŠ•แŒฅแŒซ แˆˆแˆแŠ• แŠ แŠ•แŒˆแ‰ แŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹? แˆˆแˆแŠ•แˆต แŠจแ‹ณแˆญ แŠฅแˆตแŠจแ‹ณแˆญ แŠ แŠ•แŒซแŒซแ‰ธแ‹? แ‰ฅแˆˆแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ แ‹จแ‰… แŠฅแŠ•แŒˆแ‹ฐแ‹ณแˆˆแŠ•แข แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ˆแ‹ซแ‹จแ‰ แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠ แ‰ฐแˆจแ‹ตแ‰ฐแŠ“แˆแข

    แˆ˜แˆแˆฑแˆ แˆ†แŠ แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ณแ‹ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠฅแŠ“ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แŠจแŠฅแŠ›แˆ แˆ†แŠ• แŠจแŠฅแŠแˆฑ แ‹ญแˆแ‰แŠ•แˆ แŠจแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแ‹ˆแˆจ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแข แ‹ญแŠธแ‹แˆ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆตแˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆซแŒ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แ‹แˆฝแŠ“ แŠ แŒŽแŠ•แ‰ฃแˆฝ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹ตแˆญแŒ…แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แˆˆแ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‰ต แ‹จแŠ แˆ˜แˆˆแŠฉแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆญแˆ…แˆซแˆ„แŠ“ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ญแˆ‰แŠแ‰ณ แ‰ แˆตแŒแ‰ฅแŒแ‰ฅแŠแ‰ต แˆฒแ‹˜แˆญแ‰แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แŒฃแŠฆแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆ›แ‹ญแ‰€แˆญแˆˆแ‰ต แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แˆ˜แ‰ƒแ‰ฅแˆฉ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰แŒฃ แ‰ณแŒ…แ‰ฆ แŠฅแ‹จแ‹ˆแˆจแ‹ฐ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆจแ‹ณแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹แค แ‹ญแˆแ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠแ‰ณแ‹แˆซแˆชแŠแ‰ต แŠจแ‰ฐแŠแˆณแ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰แŒฃ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ตแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ฝ แˆแ‹ตแˆซแ‹Š แˆƒแ‹ญแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆŒแˆˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แŠจแ‹แแˆˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แ‰ฐแˆซแˆ˜แˆต แˆˆแ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‰ฆแŒ แ‰กแŒฃแ‰ณแˆˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแˆ แ‹จแ‹˜แˆฉแ‰ต แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ณแ‹Š แˆดแˆซ แŠฅแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแˆแˆ…แˆจแ‰ต แˆฒแˆแŒƒแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹จแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‰ปแŠ“ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠแ‹แข

    แŠฅแŠ› แŒแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แŠฅแŠ•แˆ˜แŠญแˆซแˆˆแŠ•แฃ แŠฅแŠ“แˆณแˆตแ‰ฃแˆˆแŠ•แฆ

    แ‰ แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹จแŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แˆแˆจแˆต แŒ‹แˆญ แŠ แ‰ฅแˆฎ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ‹แˆˆแ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ แŒญแแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ฐแˆแค

    แ‰ แŠ•แแˆ€แŠ• แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰ปแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ แ‰ฅแˆฎ แŠจแˆณแˆฝแŠ“ แˆแˆซแŒ… แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แ‰ แ…แŠ“แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‰†แˆ›แˆˆแŠ• แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ›แˆ‹แ‹˜แŠ•แŠ“ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆซแˆน แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆฅแ‰ต แ‰ แŒแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ แ‹แŒฃแŠ แŠฅแˆญแˆแŒƒ แ‹ญแ‹แˆฐแ‹ต แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ˆแ‰ตแ‹ˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฆแˆญแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ˆแŒ…แฃ
    แ‹ญแˆแ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹›แˆฌแˆ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹ฆแŠแ‰ต แ‹ญแ‹ž แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แ‹แˆจแแŠ“ แˆ…แ‹แ‰งแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แŠจแ‹แˆแˆ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ณแˆญแฃ
    แ‰ แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆžแ‰ต! แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆซแŒ…แ‰ถ แˆ˜แ‹แˆจแ‰ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆžแ‰ต! แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แˆ›แˆ‹แ‹˜แŠ•แฃ
    แ‰ แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ญ แแ‰ตแˆ… แˆˆแŒ แˆ›แ‹ แˆˆแŒแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ! แŠแƒแŠแ‰ต แˆˆแŠ“แˆแ‰€แ‹ แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ! แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆซแ‰ แ‹ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆˆแ‰… แ‹ญแ‰†แŒ แˆซแˆแŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰งแˆแ‰ต แ‰ แŠ แˆตแ‰ธแŠณแ‹ญ แŠ แ‰แˆ›แ‰ฝแˆแŠ“ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆแ‰ฆแŠ“แ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆแˆณแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แ‹แˆฝแˆตแ‰ฑ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆƒแ‰ต แŠ แŒˆแ‹›แ‹ แˆตแˆญ แˆ˜แˆฝแŒ‹แ‰ฝแˆ แŠจแˆ˜แ‹แˆจแแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ•แˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹ฆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ แ‰€แˆ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰แŒฃ แŠขแˆ‹แˆ› แŠจแˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰†แŒ แ‰ฅ โ€œแŒ‰แ‹ตแŒ“แ‹ฑ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ›แˆฐแ‹แŠ“แฃ แˆแŒก แŠจแˆซแˆฐแ‹โ€ แ‹˜แˆจแŠ› แˆตแˆญแ‹“แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แˆตแ‹ˆแŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‹ฒแˆžแŠญแˆซแˆฒแ‹ซแ‹Š แˆตแˆญแ‹“แ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠซแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แˆ˜แŠญแˆซแˆˆแŠ• .

  34. mahmoud says:

    ” แ‰ แŒฅแ‰ฃแŒญ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆˆแฃ แŠ•แแˆ… แ‹‰แˆƒ แˆ›แŠ• แ‹ญแŒ แŒฃแˆ?’ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฃแˆˆแ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰€แ‹ณแˆš แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ด แ‹ตแˆ…แŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹ แ‰ฅแˆ‹ แ‰ฐแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰…แˆณ แ‹“แˆˆแˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆตแ‹ฐแŠแ‰€ แŠฅแ‹ตแŒˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆˆแ‹แŒฅ แ‰ฅแ‰ณแˆตแˆ˜แ‹˜แŒแ‰ฅแˆแฃ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แŠ• แŠฅแ‹ตแŒˆแ‰ท แ‹จแˆšแ‰€แŠ“แ‰€แŠ• แŠญแ‰ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แŒˆแŒฅแˆŸแ‰ณแˆแฃ แˆปแŠฅแ‰ฅแ‹ซ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ตแข แˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ฑ แ‹ญแ‰…แˆˆแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‰€แ‹ตแˆ˜แ‹ แŒ /แˆšแˆตแ‰ตแˆญ แˆ˜แˆˆแˆต แ‹œแŠ“แ‹Š แ‹จแŒ€แˆ˜แˆจแ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‰ฐแˆซแˆ˜แˆต แˆตแ‰ตแˆซแ‰ดแŒ‚ แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆถ แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แ‰€แŒฅ แˆแˆแข แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰ฃแฃ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ แŒฅแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹ตแˆœ แ‰€แ‹ตแˆž แ‹ญแˆžแ‰ณแˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ แ‰€แ‹ แŠขแˆณแ‹ซแˆต แŠ แˆแ‹ˆแˆญแ‰‚ แŠฅแˆฑ แ‰ แˆธแˆจแ‰ แ‹ แˆดแˆซ แˆตแŠ•แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แˆฒแˆžแ‰ฑ แŠฅแˆฑ แŒแŠ• แŒˆแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ต แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แˆแˆซแˆจแˆต แŠฅแ‰…แ‹ฑ แŠฅแ‹จแˆฐแˆซแˆˆแ‰ต แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‹แˆแข แ‰ แŠ แˆซแ‰ฑแˆ แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ณแŒ แ‰„แŠ“ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆฐแˆจแŒˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแŒˆแ‰ฅแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แŒฅแแ‰ถ แŒ แŠแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ แ‰€ แˆ†แŠ–แฃ แˆฐแŠ แ‹จแ•แˆฎแ–แŒ‹แŠ•แ‹ณ แ‹˜แˆ˜แ‰ป แŠจแ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แŠจแ‹แŒญแˆ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠจแแ‰ทแˆแข แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹‹แˆš แ‹ตแˆญแŒ€แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆฉ แˆซแ‹ตแ‹ฎ แŒฃแ‰ฅแ‹ซแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‹ตแˆจ แŒˆแ†แ‰ฝ แ‰ แŒฅแ‰…แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆตแ‹ แ‰ฃแ‹ฐแˆฉ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แŠ แˆ›แŠญแŠแŠแ‰ต แˆˆแˆญแŠฉแˆต แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ แˆ›แˆตแˆแ€แˆแ‹ซ แŠซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰†แ‹จแข แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‹จแˆ›แˆตแ‰ณแ‹แ‰…แ‹ซ แˆšแŠ•แˆตแ‰ดแˆญ แˆฐแˆซแ‰ฐแŠžแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‹แŒญ แˆแŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹Žแ‰น แˆ™แˆ‰ แŒแ‹แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แˆถแˆปแˆ แˆšแ‹ตแ‹ซ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แˆ˜แˆตแˆˆแ‹ แŠจแ‹แ‹แ‹ญแฃ แˆตแˆœแ‰ต แ‰€แˆตแ‰ƒแˆฝแŠ“ แ‹แˆธแ‰ต แ…แˆแŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹แŒฃแ‰ต แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แˆแˆซแˆจแˆต แ‹•แ‰…แ‹ณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆˆแˆ›แˆณแŠซแ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แ‰ป แŒ€แˆแˆจแ‹‹แˆแข แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹‹แˆš แˆตแˆ แ‹ญแˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆตแ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŠ› แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ก แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แˆ€แ‰ฅแ‰ต แŠ แแˆญแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆฉ แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แˆ›แˆ˜แŠ• แˆžแŠแŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹แฃ แˆˆแŠ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹จแ‹˜แˆˆแ‰€ แ‰‚แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰€แˆ แŠ แˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แŠ“แข แˆตแˆˆแ‹šแˆ… แˆแ‰ฅ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แˆแ‰ฅ แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแข

  35. Kassa says:

    Dear Awramba; there are many useful and important reasons to allow while nothing to delete it. Please, continue being a professional, respected, committed and patriotic Journalist.

    The 25 years of silence is broken. The accumulation of more than 25 years of humiliations, desperations, hopelessness, hurt, losses, discriminations, imprisonments, disappearances, Ethnic cleansings and killings targeting the Amhara is over. Most of the crimes done against the Amhara in each and every area occupied by TPLF/EPLF on their ways to Addis is recorded to the very details including the victims’ names, witnesses and those responsible using OLF and others to commit those crimes inciting and inflaming by divisions and hates against the Amhara.

    What happened in Wolega, in today’s TPLF created Beshangul Gumuz and other places including Wolkite Tegede in Gonder and Raya Azebo in Wollo even before TPLF/EPLF reached Addis Ababa are all there recorded to the very details. What happened after 1991 under TPLF/EPLF rules of Ethiopia in places such as Eastern and western Harergie, Arusi, Wolega, Gambela. western Shewa, Benchi Machi and of course Behsangul Gumuz and other places against the Amhara are all there recorded to the very detail thanks to the brave Ethiopian individuals. The crimes OLF and an Islamic Oromo terrorist group in eastern and western hararge, Welega and other places part of in the so called today’s oromia are the worst form of ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity no one did against anyone in that savage and cruelty ways done against the Amhara under the TPLFs rule and watch.

    TPLF and its Dogs such as Tamirat Laine, Tefera walwa, Dawit yohannes, Addisu Legese, Bereket Simon and others part of these TPLF created elements were none stop initiated and inflamed these atrocities against the Amharas; applauding to OLF and its Oromo Islamic terrorist Group committing together with organized manners the crimes they did against the amhara. Even what happened in Benchi machi and Beshangul Gumuz not long ago against the amhara with ethnic cleansing were not condemned the right ways and on time to stop them by the TPLF/EPRDF but because of pressures and exposing by Diaspora Ethiopians.

    The wolkite Tegede and Telemet in Begemeder Gonder the Amhara people suffering is started in 1972EC/1980 when few TPLF members crossed the Tekeze River and entered there. Tekeze River is the natural and historical boarder between Amhara and Tigre since the Time of memorial.

    Yet, because of the power of guns in their hands and merciless attacks against those standing for their rights, they are still not only occupying but illegally making these very important and historical Gonder regions as part of Tigry. The people are forced to leave the area or denounce their amhara identities and become Tigre. They have occupied it through mass settlements from Tigry with hundreds of thousands of families. This is what is going on there for 36 years and particularly for 25 years since 1991.

    However, the Amhara people did nothing to stop, revenge or even organize at least to protect themselves. There are 100s thousands so called Tigres living in Gonder including wolkite Tegede, telemet and Wollo including Raya azebo, Gojam, Shewa and other places historically are part of the Amhara regions despite TPLF that is here because of the Tigre supports is responsible about the crimes happened against the amhara because of they are Amhara.

    However, the silence and being quiet while so many crimes against the Amhara have happened is over. Others are organizing to attack others and as the result the Amhara and some others including Gurages have been the worst victims. This is the Time the Amhara are also organizing themselves in order to protect themselves from any attack against them in any place particularly in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the country of all Ethiopians and each and every citizen has the right to live, work and feel free all of the country. The 20 years old Kilil(1995) done by TPLF as chairperson, OLF, ONLF and an Afar group as part of the decision makers while the rest were not their by their true representatives but the TPLF plaster jokes using them to make their illegal kilil demarcation as legitimate and legal, is no more acceptable as it is.

    If it was done properly and openly with the citizens participations and based on historical facts and practical reasons, many regions would not be part of some kilils as they are ever since. Shashemene, Dila, keffa, western Illubabor, part of Shewa and the likes would never have been part of the Kilil they are today but Debub Kilil, Gambela and Amhara respectively. Metekel province in Gojam, Wolkite Tegede and Telmet in Gonder, Raya Azebo in Wollo and places in Shewa would be part of the Amhara region if the Amhara were represented by their representatives and truly participated in the kilil process.

    This is no longer to keep quiet and act as if nothing wrong is going on in the country. This is the time to find the right solutions, together. The first step is to protect the citizens that are targeted and affected for 25 years because of the TPLF ethnic policy and kilil lines. The Amhara people that is the most powerful, homogeny, with no divisions within based on religions, clans, sub clans or sub sub clans which are the cases among many other Ethiopian Ethnic groups including oromo, Ethiopian Somali, Afar and so on, is very much integrated, mixed and related to one another with all Ethiopian Ethnic groups. It is among the leading Ethiopian groups paying the sacrifices for the peace, unity and safety of the country and its people. Therefore, it is no longer accepting the TPLF hates and crimes targeting directly and indirectly in many ways ever since it started as a rebel group. We still are hearing their plenty and none stop hate speeches and inflammatory stories against the Amhara where Sebhat Nega and his hateful and mad dogs are responsible.

    We all know there are many other Ethnic groups affected by the TPLF Ethnic policy and kilil lines including the Gurage that are the ancient and hard working Ethiopians. This is the Time all Ethiopians have to wake up and unite for the sake of peace, unity, prosperity and future together as a nation with no Ethnic affiliation or kilil line hindering or stopping them. We all know, the vast majority Ethiopians from all groups are innocent, hard working, in love with their country and trying to live in peace and with harmony together. The problem is the TPLF poison they are using to divide and quarrel the people because of it is good for them.

    But one thing is clear. And that is no more Amhara will be targeted and victimized in any place or time in Ethiopia by anyone because of he/she is Amhara. The Amharas are still the most powerful and very much known with unity and braveness dealing together against their common enemies. This not anymore the time to watch silently and let it go as if nothing is happened when the crimes have done against them for the last 25 years including recently in Beshangul Gumuz despite Metekel, Chagni and many places had been the Amhara people regions being part of Gojam. The Amhara are now in the position organizing themselves in order to protect any crime against them in any time or place by anyone in Ethiopia. TPLF and its plaster groups are not there to protect them but initiating and inflaming the issues against the amhara by creating and supporting savage and primitive criminal groups.

    We all know who were/are those responsible for the crimes against the amharas in the regions that are part of Oromia, Benchi magi and other places in the south, gambella, Beshangul Gumuz and other places. Those are part of the TPLF Ethnic policy and kilil administration officials, employees and sympathizers. The Amhara people together with others will no more accepting the injustices and crimes against them in the name of Sebhat Nega TPLF policy. But organizing themselves in order to protect first themselves and then the country. The Amhara have been victims of themselves because of they are always thinking and paying sacrifices for the peace, unity and safety of the country while forgetting themselves. However, this is the time to defend themselves first in order to be for the rest including the country.

    As usual the Sebhat Nega TPLF was wrong sending it’s so called Special Forces to Gonder during teh Night to abduct members of the citizens living in the city at the time. Gonder is a historical and civilization city with more than 400 years history before TPLF is started to modernize Mekele and other places in Tigry. Gonder has been always a peaceful and united city no one managed to cause any trouble against anyone. However, TPLF/woyane tried to cause chaos in the city while it is keeping peace and getting to busy modernizing Mekkele beyond recognitions with unacceptable investment approaches using the country resources there.

    It is a big wish if PM Hailemariam was independent and free from surrounding by the TPLF cadres acting as advisors and big officials occupying the nation very important positions. If he was free and independent, he would easily see the wrong doing in Wolkite Tegede and Telemet and as the country PM, he would solve the people’s cry there for decades easily and quickly based on the historical facts where the Tekeze river being always the natural boarder Between Begemeder Gonder and Tigry. Sadly, he is not free and independent despite he is a true Ethiopian, patriotic, Gentle and wise man than those rebels using him for their known illegal and unacceptable activities in the name of Ethiopia.

    The powerful and true Ethiopian Amhara people are no longer silent and accepting the TPLF tragedies against them. Instead they are now organizing themselves to protect them while working together with all Ethiopians that are one way or the other victims of the TPLF policy and rule. The Amhara people are the most integrated, mixed and friendly people with the rest of the Ethiopian groups. TPLF knows that and that is why it is targeting the Amhara people from day one fearing it is the centre of the unity of the Ethiopian people which is against the TPLF Ethnic policy and kilil divide and rule policy. We know who is benefiting from the last 25 years. Look at Mekelle and other cities, and places in Tigry that were less attractive and developed than cities, towns and places elsewhere including the Water rich and fertile Amhara region closed to Tigry.

    *****We must not ignore, deny or reject the issues we all know they are there and some or all of us are affected by one way or another. Ethiopians including Medias must be free and independent serving the nation based on right from wrong, positive from negative and good from bad. However, TPLF is not ready for that because of fears for the truth, facts, rights, positives and good that are against its one sided Ethnic originated unchallenged policies and activities in the country. In order to overcome the volcanic type of huge bursts caused by the people anger and frustration after a long quiet and deeply hurt, TPLF needs to change its mind and have new approaches dealing with the issues based on the 21-century society.

    The Wolkite Tegede and Telement People issues are legitimate, known and always have been there despite TPLF has tried everything to bury it which is impossible. This is the time to solve them peacefully based on historical facts and practical reasons. It is no more hidden in Tigry under the TPLF shoes, beds and carpets. But it is now a nationwide and international phenomenon needs urgent and the right solutions.

    Don’t try to use again any force in Gonder or elsewhere in the region but the people are good enough to deal with any issue based on the law. This is not 1991, 1995 even 2005 or 2010, but 2016. The Amhara people are no longer silent accepting any crap against them by anyone but always committed for the peace, unity, safety, security and prosperity of the nation together with respect, understandings and equalities.

    TPLF must stop dividing the citizens lead by the young generations that are more than ready and capable to live together in a country belongs to all of them equally with no artificial boarder within as TPLF is doing to stop them. TPLF kilil and Ethnic policy is not working in the 21-century inter connected human society while the architects and experts are the hateful and old Sebhat Nega and his likes from the Feudal era.

  36. Helen says:

    Welkait is Gondar.we are proud of that Eritreans are our brothers and not worry Tigray people you will get punished burn alive soon.

  37. Concerned Citizen says:

    แˆ˜แŒฅแŽ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠญแˆตแ‰ฐแ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ด แŒฅแˆฉ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ“ แ‹˜แˆˆแ‰„แ‰ณแŠแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แ‹จแˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แ‹แŒคแ‰ต แˆŠแ‹ซแˆ˜แŒฃ แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆ‹แˆแกแก แ‰ แˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ“แˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹ซแˆแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ แ‰€ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ตแ‰ขแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ•แ‰€แ‰ต แ‰ แŒฅแŠ•แ‰ณแ‹Šแ‰ต แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฃแˆ›แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠแŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆแ€แˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹แŠ• แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แ‹ญแ‹˜แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ‚แ‹ฐแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‹ญแ‹แŠ“ แŠจแˆแˆ‰แˆ แŒŽแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆญ แŠ แŠซแ‰ฃแ‰ขแ‹ซแ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แŠฅแˆแ‰ฃแ‰ต แŠซแˆ‹แŒˆแŠœ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆˆแ‹จแˆˆแ‰ต แŠ แ‹ฐแŒ‹ แˆŠแŒฅแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ซ แˆแˆ‰ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแฃ แŠ•แ‰€แ‰ตแฃ แ‹แˆญแ‹ฐแ‰ตแฃ แˆตแˆ แˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ตแฃ แˆ˜แŒˆแ‹ฐแˆแฃ แˆ˜แˆแŠ“แ‰€แˆแฃ แˆ˜แ‰ณแˆฐแˆญแฃ แˆ˜แ‰ฃแˆจแˆญแฃ แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ต แˆ˜แŠแŒ แ‰…แฃ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แˆ›แŒฃแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แˆตแŠ•แ‰ฑ แ‰ฐแ‰†แŒฅแˆฎ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแˆแ‰… แ‹˜แŒแŠ“แŠ แŒแแŠ“ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แˆฒแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแ‰ แ‰ต แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแŠแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ แˆ˜แˆฐแ‹‹แ‹•แ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆแˆชแฃ แˆžแŠแฃ แ‹ฐแŠซแˆ›แฃ แ‹ตแˆƒแฃ แ‰ฅแ‰ธแŠ›แŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆแˆ‰ แˆˆ25 แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แ‹ซแ‰ แ‰ƒแˆˆแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰…แ‹ตแˆšแ‹ซ แˆˆแˆซแˆฑ แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ แŠ แ‹ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแŒฅแ‰ถ แ‰ แŒแˆแ… แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ณแ‹จแˆˆแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ตแ‰ฅแ‰ฅแˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แŠซแˆ‹แŒˆแŠœแŠ“ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แŠซแˆแ‹ซแ‹˜ แˆ˜แ‹˜แ‹™ แŠซแˆˆแˆแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแŠ“ แŠ แ‹ฐแŒˆแŠ› แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠ แˆˆแ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŠจแ‹แŒคแ‰ฑ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ƒแˆš แŠ แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•แˆแกแก แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹แแˆŽ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฐแŠ›แ‹ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแŠ“ แˆŒแˆ‹แŠ›แ‹ แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹‹แˆš แˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆตแˆˆแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แŒฃแˆ‹แ‰ตแก แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ต แˆ›แ‹แ‹ฐแˆแŠ“ แˆ˜แŒˆแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆ˜แŒจแˆจแˆป แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆจแ‹ แ‹แŒคแ‰ต แˆŒแˆ‹ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆซแˆตแŠ• แ‰ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฅแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆแˆ‰แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแŒŽแ‹ณ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹แ‹ตแ‰€แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แŠขแˆ…แŠ แ‹ดแŒแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แˆแŠ• แŠ แˆแ‰ฃแ‰ต แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แ‰ แŠแƒแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ˜แŠ“แŒˆแˆญแˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ถแ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ แˆญ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ถแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ฐแแˆฉ แŠจแˆ†แŠ‘ แŠจแˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠญแแˆ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แ‰€แˆซแˆจแ‰ฅแŠ“ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แ‰ แŒแˆแ…แŠแ‰ต แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แŠแŒ‹แŒˆแˆญแŠ“ แˆ˜แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแ‰ต แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แ‹ˆแŒฃแŒซแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆแŠ“แŒ แŒซ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ… แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘แŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แ‹ซแŒˆแ‰ฃแŠ“แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ‰ แ‰ แ‹แŒญแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆฉ แŠจแ‹ˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แˆฝแˆ›แŒแˆŒ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแŒ…แŒ แˆŠแ‹ซแˆณแˆตแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„แ‹ แˆŠแ‹ซแŠแˆณแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ…แˆแŠ“ แŠฅแŒ…แŒ แ‹˜แŒแŠ“แŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แˆˆแ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ญแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰ƒแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แˆ†แŠ– แŒแŠ• แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแˆ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆฌ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹›แ‰ป แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แŒฅแ‰ƒแ‰ต แˆณแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแˆต แ‰ แ‹แˆแ‰ณแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆˆแˆณแˆ‰ แˆตแˆœแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹ซแ‹˜แŠแˆ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฐแŒฅแŠ“แŠ•แ‰ถ แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แ‰†แ‹ญแ‰ทแˆแกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ“ แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แŒแŠ• แ‹ซ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแŠแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆšแˆ˜แŠแŒญแŠ“ แ‰ แˆšแˆแ€แˆ แ‰ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แˆ˜แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆแŠ“ แ‹˜แŒแŠ“แŠ แˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹จแ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹ซแ‰ แ‰ƒแˆˆแ‰ต แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŒแˆแ… แŠฅแ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ถ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ถ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‰ฝแˆŽ แ‰ฝแˆŽ แŠ แˆแˆญแˆฎ แ‹จแˆšแŠแˆณ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠจแˆแŠ• แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆŠแ‹ฐแˆญแˆต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ฐแŠ“แŒ‹แˆชแˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆ˜แˆตแŠซแˆช แŠ แ‹ซแˆตแˆแˆแŒˆแ‹แˆแกแก แŠ แˆ›แˆซแˆ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แˆฒแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ 25 แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ตแŠ• แŠ แˆณแˆแแˆแกแก แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แŒแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แŠฅแ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆ˜แ‰€แŒ แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆแŠ“ แ‰†แˆญแŒฆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŠแˆณ แ‰ แŠ แ‹ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ณแ‹จแˆˆแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆณแˆตแ‰ถ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แŠฅแˆแ‰ณแˆˆแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠจแˆ†แŠ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แˆแŠญ แŠฅแˆณแ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ แŒญแ‹ตแŠ“ แŠแ‹ณแŒ…แŠ• แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‰ แŠฅแˆณแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ˜แŒจแˆ˜แˆญ แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠ•แกแก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แŠ แˆแˆญแˆฎ แ‰ แ‰ฐแŠแˆณ แ‰ณแˆ‹แ‰… แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆŠแˆ†แŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฅ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แŒจแˆญแˆถ แŠจแ‰แŒฅแŒฅแˆญ แ‹แŒญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒˆแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แŠญแˆจแ‹ แˆŠแŠ–แˆญ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แŠ แ‰ถ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆแˆ แ‹จแŠแˆฑ แˆ˜แŒ แ‰€แˆšแ‹ซแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฐแŠ› แ‰ฐแŒ แ‹ซแ‰‚ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ‘ แŠจแ‹˜แˆ˜แ‹ต แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แŒ“แ‹ฐแŠ› แˆ˜แŠซแˆช แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹‹แˆแกแก แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹ญแˆแ‰… แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแ‰€แˆญแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹‹แŒฃแ‰ธแ‹ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แˆ แˆณแ‹ญแ‹˜แŒˆแ‹ฉ แˆ€แ‰ แˆŠแ‰ณแ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แˆ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ฐ แˆ˜แˆแˆฑ แŒแˆแ… แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆชแ‹ซ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ•แŠ“ แŒ แˆˆแˆแ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ แ‰ฐแŒˆแ‰ขแ‹ แˆ˜แˆแŠจ แ‰ แŠ แˆตแ‰ธแŠณแ‹ญ แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ€ แŠซแˆแˆ†แŠ แŒแŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แ‹จแ‰ตแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ„แ‹ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แŒˆแˆญแˆธแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฃแˆฐ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แˆŠแ‹ซแˆตแŠจแ‰ตแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ‹แ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆฉ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แˆบแˆ†แ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‰†แŒ แˆฉ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒˆแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹แˆญแ‹ซ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แˆˆแŒแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แˆฒแˆ‰ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แˆŠแ‹ซแˆณแˆตแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‰€แŠ“แ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แˆŠแ‹ซแˆตแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠจแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแˆฐ แŒแŠ• แˆแŠญ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆˆ25 แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹ แˆแˆ‰ แ‰ แŠแˆฑแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆŠแˆแ€แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ แŠ แˆตแ‰ตแˆ›แˆ›แŠ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แ‹จแˆˆแˆแกแก

    แŠญแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆญ แ‰ตแŒแˆฌ แˆแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แŠจแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แˆแ‹ตแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆญ แ‰ตแŒˆแˆฌ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹Š แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แŒแŠ• แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ แˆ€แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฒแˆฐแ‰ฅแŠญแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆ›แ‰‹แˆจแŒฅ แˆฒแˆฐแˆซ แ‹จแŠ–แˆจแกแก แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ˜แŒจแŠจแŠ•แŠ“ แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ แŠแƒ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ แŒฃแˆ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แˆตแˆ‹แˆ‰ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แŠแƒแŠ“ แŠ•แแˆ… แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰ฝ แŠจแŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แŠจแˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹Š แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ แŒแˆแ…แŠแ‰ตแฃ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹œแŒ‹ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แˆตแˆœแ‰ต แˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆŠแ‰€แˆซแˆจแ‰กแŠ“ แˆˆแˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠ แ‰ฅแˆจแ‹ แˆŠแˆฐแˆฉ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แ‹แˆ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แŒˆแ‹ขแ‹แŠ• แ“แˆญแ‰ฒ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แŒแŒ แˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แแˆจแˆตแฃ แŠ•แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ตแŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แ‹แ‹ฐแˆแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅแŠ• แˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แˆˆแˆ›แ‰ฅแ‹›แ‰ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ›แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆตแˆœแ‰ต แˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆ›แŠ•แŠ•แˆ แˆณแ‹ญแŒŽแ‹ณ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แˆŠแŒ แ‰…แˆ แ‰ แˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แˆ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แˆตแˆ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ แˆ˜แŠซแŠจแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠจแˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแŠฅแˆพแˆ… แŠ แŒฅแˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆตแ‰ แˆญแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แแˆจแˆต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆญแ‹ แ‹›แ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰แˆจแŒฅแŠ“ แŠแ‰ƒแ‰…แˆŽ แŠจแˆตแˆฉ แ‰ แˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆณแˆตแˆจแ‹‹แ‰ธแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แŒแˆ‹แ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ“แ‹Š แˆ˜แ‹˜แ‹žแ‰ฝ แˆณแ‹ซแ‰†แˆŸแ‰ธแ‹ แˆŠแ‰€แˆซแˆจแ‰กแฃ แˆŠแ‹ˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉแŠ“ แˆŠแˆตแˆ›แˆ™ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ต แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ฐแ‹ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆตแˆœแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‰…แˆตแ‰ƒแˆด แˆ›แˆณแ‹จแ‰ต แˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆญ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ แˆจแ‰ณแ‰ณ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŒแŠ• แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แ‰ฃแˆต แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆฑ แ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆแ‹ฐแ‹ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ฐแŒ แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ แŠ แ‹จแˆจแŒฉ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉ แ‰ แ‹แˆแ‰ณ แˆŠแ‰ณแˆˆแ แŠ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‹แˆแกแก แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆ‹แŒ†แ‰ฝ แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠจแ‹šแ‹ซ แŠจแˆ˜แŠแˆปแ‹ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹ซแŠ• แˆแˆ‰ แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแˆแ€แˆ˜ แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹ แˆˆ25 แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แˆˆแ‹จแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆแˆจแŒ… แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ปแˆˆแกแก แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แˆˆแˆจแŒ…แˆ แŒŠแ‹œ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰‚ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹แˆ แ‹œแŒ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆแŒ†แ‰ฝ แŒแŠ•แŠ™แŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆ˜แ‹˜แ‹ แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ทแŠ• แ‹ซแ‹ซแˆแŠ“ แ‹ซแ‹แ‰ƒแˆแกแก

    แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แˆ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แŠฅแ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠจแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จแŠ“ แ‹จแŠจแ‹ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ˜แˆซ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แ‹ˆแŒฃแŒซ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆ‹แˆแฃ แˆ˜แˆแŠ“แŒ แŒซ แˆแˆจแˆตแฃ แˆ˜แŒ“แŒ“แ‹› แˆ˜แŠชแŠ“แฃ แˆ›แŒฅแ‰‚แ‹ซ แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซแŠ“ แˆˆแˆšแˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆแˆ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแˆชแฃ แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ณแŠ“ แŠ แˆˆแŠแ‰ณ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แˆแˆ‰ แ‰†แˆ แ‰ฅแˆˆแ‹ แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฅแŠ“ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แŒคแŠ• แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŠจแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŒ‹แˆญ แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ‰ แ‹จแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹‹แŒฝแŠฆ แˆŠแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ‰ แ‹ญแŒ แ‰ แ‰…แ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹‹แˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ‰แŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆ†แŠแ‹แˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แˆ˜แˆแŠฉ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰€แŒ แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰กแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆšแˆแŒฝแˆ™ แŠจแˆ†แŠ‘ แŒแŠ• แˆŠแˆจแˆณ แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แ‹ญแ‰…แˆญ แˆŠแ‰ฃแˆ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แŠฅแ‹ซแ‹ˆแ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแˆแŒฝแˆ™ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆแˆ‹แˆน แ‰ แŠ แŒฃแ‹ แ‰ แŠแˆฑ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆŠแˆ†แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ˜แŒ แˆซแŒ แˆญ แ‹จแˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แˆแกแก

    แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แˆณแ‹ญแˆˆแ‹จแŠ• แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‹œแŒ‹แŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แŠ แ‰ฅแˆฎ แˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆณแˆตแˆฎแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰€แˆซแˆจแ‰ฅแŠ“ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹ˆแ‹ซแ‰ต แ‰ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‹ฐแˆ˜แŠ“ แŠฅแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ฃแ‰ แ‰ แ‰ฅแŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแŠ• แˆ˜แŠจแˆซ แ‰ แŠแŒŽแ‹ตแŒ“แ‹ต แ‰ แŠ› แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠจแˆ˜แ‹แŠแ‰ก แ‰ แŠแ‰ต แˆแŠ•แˆแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แ‰‹แˆแŠ“ แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ฃแˆญ แŒแŠ• แˆ˜แˆแˆต แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แŠ แˆแŠ• แŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆตแˆ‹แˆˆแ‹ แˆแˆ‰ แˆ˜แŠ•แˆตแŠคแŠ“ แˆ˜แŒฅแŽ แ‹แŒคแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆณแŠ•แ‹˜แŒˆแ‹ญ แˆซแˆณแ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ• แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแŠซแŠจแˆ แŒŠแ‹œ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‹ญแ‰€แ‹แŠ“ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแŒˆแ‹ตแ‹ฐแ‹ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญ แ‰ตแŒแˆฌ แŠแŠ• แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŒ‹แˆญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแŒ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰ แˆŠแ‹ซแˆตแ‰กแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆŠแˆ˜แˆแˆฑ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹ซ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แŒŠแ‹œแ‹แŠ• แŒจแˆญแˆถ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆˆแˆ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŒฅแˆญแŒฅแˆญ แ‹จแˆˆแ‹แˆแกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แŠจแˆฐแˆ‹แˆแŠ“ แŠจแ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆปแˆ แˆŒแˆ‹ แˆ˜แแ‰ป แ‰แˆแ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹จแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ แˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ญแŠแŠซแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅแŠ• แˆ…แ‹ญแ‹Žแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ญแŒŽแ‹ณ แŠแ‹ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‰ แŒˆแ‹ขแ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠจแŒ แ‰…แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆšแŠ’แˆตแ‰ฐแˆญ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แ‹ญแŒ แ‰ แ‰ƒแˆแกแก แŠจแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆญ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆญแŠ•แˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ซแˆˆแŠ• แ‹œแŒ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠฅแŠฉแˆ แ‹œแŒ‹ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹จแ‰ต แˆแ‹ฉแŠแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ฝแŒแˆฎแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹ญแ‰ปแˆ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ฐ แŠขแˆ…แŠ แ‹ฐแŒ แŠจแŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ‘ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แˆ˜แˆแŠซแˆ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆณแˆฐแ‰ฅแŠ“ แŠ แ‰€แˆซแˆจแ‰ฅ แˆŠแŠ–แˆจแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซแŠ• แ‹จแ‹แŒญ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แ‰ แŒˆแˆซ แˆ›แˆธแŠแ แ‹ญแ‰ปแˆ‹แˆแกแก แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅแŠ“ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แˆฒแˆ†แŠ‘ แŒแŠ• แŠ แˆธแŠ“แŠแ‹ แˆแŠ• แŒŠแ‹œแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ•แˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ฑ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แ‹ญแˆ… แ‰ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•แ‰ฅแŠ• แŠจแˆแˆ‰แˆ แŒŽแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‹แˆฐแˆˆแˆฐ แŒฅแˆจแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‰‹แˆญแŒฅ แ…แŠ“แ‰ต แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆŠแŠ–แˆจแŠ• แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ“ แ‹จแŒฅแˆแˆ˜แ‰ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแŒ€แˆแˆฎ แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแŠ•แŠจแ‰ฃแˆˆแˆˆ แ‹ซแˆˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ… แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆณแ‹ซแŒˆแŠ แ‹จแ‰ตแˆ แŠ แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ตแˆแกแก แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆ˜แŠ•แˆตแˆ„ แˆ†แŠ– แŠจแŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‰€แ‹แˆต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ญแŠจแ‰ฐแŠ• แŒแŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ญ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‹ณแŠ›แŠ“ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆŒแˆ‹แŠ›แ‹ แˆ˜แŒ แˆชแ‹ซ แˆตแˆ แŠขแˆ…แŠ แ‹ดแŒ แ‰ตแˆแ‰… แˆ€แˆ‹แŠแŠแ‰ตแˆ แˆ†แŠ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‰ฐแŒ แ‹ซแ‰‚แŠแ‰ต แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก

  38. Wolloye says:

    Ashenda cry from wollo

    The Ashenda culture that is colorfully and happily celebrated with songs and Eskista dances saying “Ashendaye, Shadey Abeba, Adey Abeba and so on from Tigry to Gonder, Gojam, part of Shewa and other places in the country including Addis Ababa is the gift from Wollo. Ashenda is wolloye and its birth place and hot spot is north wollo. Lalibela, Amara Saint, Sekota, Kobo, Alamata, Korem, Maichew, Debre Damo areas and so on are the Ashenda historical and natural places.

    However, the day light culture robbery and denying is going on against the Ashenda culture to take away from its birth place where the people are celebrating it with magnificent cultural events based on the rules of the culture among the others dressing codes, hair styles, ornaments and so on between girls and women and also boys and men. What is going on since the last 25 years against our land and particularly our ashenda and other cultures for the last 10 years is like declaring wars on us to take away from us and claim as if they invented them and do belong to them.

    Ashenda is celebrated elsewhere in the name of shadey, Adey and so on all over Northern part of Ethiopia including the far western remote part of Nile valley places in Gojam. They (particularly girls) are celebrating it in their ways for 5 or 6 days every year which is in the leap years (pagumien). They are singing “Adey Abeba” while collecting long, green and strong Engecha Sar, Alela and achembila to make ornaments and with Adey ababa covered almost two meter long beautiful ropes. The boys and men are doing these for them.

    Then on September 1st which is the New year’s day they go out in groups early in the morning singing and dancing Adey Abebe walking from house to house to congratulate and wish them the best in the New Year. In return, they do get money or other properties in the form of appreciations. This is just a simple example how Ashenda is celebrated all over Northern part of Ethiopia including in the remote western Nile valley in Gojam which is far from the Ashedna birth place Semien wollo.. This is the same in Gonder, Tigry and some places in Shewa, too

    Therefore, celebrating Ashenda based on own ways by giving different names and own expressions can’t be the reasons to claim the ownership of the ashenda culture or denying the natural owners of it. Ashenda culture belongs to wollo. Its historical place and symbol of celebration in the name of Ethiopia is nothing else but Lalibela. Because Lalibela has a very close and deep rooted historical connection with the Ashenda culture and celebration.

    However, what they are telling us today is that Ashenda belongs to them and they are calling it Shadey which is how we call it when we sing and dance Shadey abeba. Korem, Alamata, Maichew, Debre Damo and other places that are now part of the Tigry Kilil are the main parts of the Ashenda historical and natural places. These places have been always the centre of Wollo together with lalibela, Amara Saint, Sekota, Desse, Kombolcha, woldya and so on.

    Debre Birhan, Debre Markos, Debre Tabor, Debre Sina, Debre Elias and so many Debres are not in Tigry but elsewhere. So, it is easy to understand where come from and whom to belong Debre Damo which is part of Tigry for the last 20 years rather that wollo as it had been always. The people living in Korem, Alamata, Maichew, Debre Damo areas and other parts of Tigry since 1995, are the Raya and Amhara people no one knows who is who but all of them are the same and one. Look at our music beats, Instruments such as Masinko, our eskista, our dressing code, hair styles, cultures, customs, Traditions and so on. Everything is Wolloye and Amhara while has nothing deeply and naturally associated with Tigry.

    Therefore, we are asking the Ethiopian culture and tourism body, government officials including Getachew Reda and Kassa Teklebirhan (both of them are part of the Ashenda culture) and the natural part of the Ashenda culture people in Wollo, Ethiopian scholars, and citizens and particularly the Raya Azebo and Raya Kobo people from wollo to stop the Asheda culture deniers and falsely claimers as they are making preparation to take away from lalibela to Axum. If Ashenda needs to have a symbol location to associate with, there is nothing else but has to be always lalibela.

    Our call and cry is very serious. Ashedna culture has nothing to do with Tigry let alone far away in Axum. yes, it is celebrated by others including in Tigry as it is all over wollo, Gojam, Gonder and some placess in Shewa in their ways although it is fading away there. But in Wollo and particularly Semien Wollo including Korem, Alamata, maichew and Debre Demo areas is an identity issue as it is the rest of semien wollo people getting hotter and better every year. The people are celebrating it as if it is in their blood and soul with big dedications, commitments and respects.

    So, don’t associate the Ashenda culture only with Tigry and trying to make Axum its symbol location while it is from semien wollo and its symbol location has to be lalibela, not Axum even in a million year because of it has nothing to do with. Come and see how we are celebrating it and how it is deeply involved with our existence such as with our music, dances and social interactions. Ashenda which is we call it shadey Abeba when we sing about it is not from Tigry but semien wollo and historically belongs to the wonders of the lalibela stone chew majestic and ancient churches.

    Save as please. Ashenda belongs to us; not anybody else. Culture sharing and celebrating together is the nature of the human society. But denying the ownership of that culture in order to claim for own is not only a theft but a crime against humanity. Tigry has no any justification to claim Ashenda being part of its culture as they have no any historical right to claim the historical lands from Wollo such as Alamata, Korem, Maichew, Debre Damo and so on. Look at the people in these areas and their deep rotted and natural connections with wollo and the Amhara people including with our music, eskista, social lives, dressing codes and with everything. We have almost nothing with Tigry but everything with wollo and amhara.

    However, what we are asking right now urgently is to stop Tigry’s calming the ownership of the Ashenda culture. This is wrong and a crime against us because we are nothing if we don’t have the ownership of the Ashenda culture which is our culture.

    Just make some studies and researches related to the Ashenda culture history and celebrations. How it was look like in Tigry 25 years ago and how it was in semien wollo including Korem, Alamata, Maichew and Debre Damo areas as well. Then look at what is going in for the last 25 years since they are holding power and particularly for the last 10 years their involvements including the former first lady related to the Ashenda culture and celebration. it is a well organized and plan activity going on for the last 10 years to take our ashenda culture away from us and claim it as if it belongs to them and its symbol has to be the far away Axum rather than its natural place and connection Lalibela.

    Stop them making another mistake again intentionally this time with our Ashenda culture thinking they are controlling everything and they are powerful can do anything they want including claiming the ownership of the ashenda culture which is not only a big lie but a big crime. They are freely and happily exercising the ownerships on our territories by taking away from wollo. We are just watching them with disbelieve while waiting our time to get our places back. But, they can’t take our Ashenda culture away from us because of it is in our blood, soul and existence.

  39. Damot says:

    Fact finding written and well documented historical witnesses about the Wolkite, Tegede and Telemet

    Different historical documents including documented by foreign scholars, historians, Travelers, and others for more than 600 years long do say the same thing about Wolkit, Tegede and Telemet being always part of Gonder.

    This is the link to refer by yourself some of the documents/books

    แ‹‹แ‰ค แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆŠแŠ•แŠฎแ‰ฝ
    1. โ€˜แˆแ‹แ‰ฅแŠ• แˆแŠฝแˆชแŠ• แŒฅแˆซแˆ•โ€™แ‹ซ แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆ“แŠ’แ‰ณโ€™ แŠขแˆŽแˆ แ‹ถ/แˆญ แŒˆแˆ‹แ‹ดแ‹Žแˆต แŠฃแˆญแŠฃแ‹ซ
    2. The Earth and its Inhabitants, Africa: South and east Africa, by Elisรฉe Reclus 1890
    3. Routes in Abyssinia (printed in 1867 G.C)
    4. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile: In the Years 1768 โ€ฆ, Volume 3. By James Bruce
    5. Tractatus tres historico-geographici (1634): A seventeenth century historical and
    geographical account of Tigray, Ethiopia (Aethiopistische Forschungen) 1634
    6. Ethiopia: the Land, Its People, History and Culture, By Yohannes Mekonnen
    7. Christopher Clapham: Transformation and continuity in revolutionary Ethiopia (Cambridge:
    Cambridge university press 1988 pp 259
    8. The World through Maps: A History of Cartography : John R Short
    9. (the Book of Axum part one)
    10. There more documents we are going to use them for the next parts.

    This is not about causing problems but bringing solutions. The problem has been with us for 22 years since kilil is created in 1994. It will not go away unless it is solved. All sides must aware where we are heading if we don’t solve it for the sake of not only the Amhara and Tigre people but also the country. We must think many times until we find the solution based on the Truth and facts.
    TPLF is wrong to the matter and has nothing to justify these regions ever had been part of Tigry. As all historical documents are showing us with maps and names of places which and were to belong including in the 15 centuries and before that, the boarder Between Amhara and Tigre is natural and that is the Tekeze River.

    We are hoping for the sake of the country and its good start in the development activies, TPLF officials and their fanatic and blind supporters would come down and see how they are wrong and become ready to solve the issue peacefully, together. Or else, this is going to lead us and our country towards a very dangerous and uncertain future.

    Ethiopians including those in Tigry must not being part of the problem but solution. There never has been Tigry beyond Tekeze in any time in history. The entire story we are hearing and most importantly many written and mapped documents for the last 100s years are saying about Tekeze river being the border Between Tigry and amhara.

    22 years old kilil demarcation between Amhara and Tigry must be done again based on historical facts and documents. This is the only and best solution to all sides including the country. The government must aware about the people feelings and readiness in the region which is different than before. There is no turning back or giving in knowing injustice has been done against them and must be corrected peacefully which is good to all sides.

  40. Damot says:

    โ€œแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ด แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แˆ†แŠแ‹ แŠ แ‹ซแ‹แ‰แˆโ€ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ

    แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ›แŠ• แŠแ‹? Horn Affairs แˆ‹แ‹ญ Ze Addis แ‰ แˆšแˆ แˆ˜แŒ แˆชแ‹ซ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แŠจแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ
    แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ แŠ แŠ•แŒปแˆญ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แŠ• แ‹ญแ‰ฐแŠแ‰ตแŠ“แˆ
    แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แˆ‹แˆˆแ‰แ‰ต แˆบแˆ… แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ตแˆซ แŠ แ‰ณแ‹แ‰…แˆ/ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ“ แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แŒฃ แŠฎแˆจแˆ แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆฅแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ โ€“ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ
    แˆฐแŠแ‹ต แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ
    แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แŠจ 1871 แ‹“.แˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ 1889แ‹“.แˆ (แŠฅ.แŠค.แŠฃ) แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹จแˆ˜แˆฉ แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹:: แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ตแŠ“แฃ แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ฉ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆ
    แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆŠแ‰ƒแ‹แŠ•แ‰ต แ‰ฐแŒฝแแˆ:: แˆตแˆˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแˆ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แˆตแˆญ
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆจ แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แŒฝแˆแ‹แ‰ณแˆ:: แˆˆแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แ‹จแŠฅแ‹แ‰แŠ• แ‹จแˆแˆจแŠ•แˆณแ‹Š แ‹จแŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠ แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญ แŠคแˆŠแˆต แˆฌแŠญแˆˆแˆต
    แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แแŠ• แ‰ แ‹‹แ‰ขแŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰€แˆต แ‹ญแ‰ปแˆ‹แˆ::
    แ‰ แ‹ฉแŠ•แ‰จแˆญแˆฒแ‰ฒ แŠฆแ แ‰ฅแˆจแˆตแˆแˆต แ‹จแŠฎแˆแ“แˆซแ‰ฒแ‰ญ แŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠ (University of Brussels, Professor of
    Comparative Geography) แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹ดแ“แˆญแ‰ตแˆ˜แŠ•แ‰ฑ แˆ€แˆ‹แŠ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญ แค แ‰ 1880
    แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แŽแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แ‹“แˆˆแˆ แŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŒฝแแˆ:: แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แแ‰ฑ แŠจแˆˆแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠ•แŠ“ แ“แˆชแˆต
    แŒ†แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠแŠซแˆ แˆถแˆณแ‹ญแ‰ฒ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆญแ‰… แˆœแ‹ณแˆŠแ‹ซ แ‰ฐแˆธแˆ‹แˆš แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒˆแ‹แ‰ณแˆ::

    แŠจแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แ‰  1880 แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ The Earth and its Inhabitants แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ•แค แ‹˜แŒ แŠ
    แ‰ฐแŠจแ‰ณแ‰ณแ‹ญ แŠญแแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŠ แˆ‰แ‰ตแข แ‹จแ‹šแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แŠญแแˆ แŠ แˆซแ‰ต แ‰ แŒˆแŒฝ 443 แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆฐแˆœแŠ• แŠฅแŠ“ แˆแˆตแˆซแ‰…
    แŠ แแˆชแŠซแŠ• แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑแŠ• แŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠ แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แ‹ญแ‰ฐแŠแ‰ตแŠ“แˆ:: แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ•แˆ
    แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แŠญแแˆ‹แ‰ฐ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ต แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แ‰แˆแŒญ แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แŒฝแŽแ‰ณแˆ::
    โ€œThe Amhara government provinces are: Dembia, Chelga, Yantangera, Dagossa, Kuarra,
    Begemidir, Guna, Saint, Wadla, Delanta, Woggera, Simen, Tselemt, Armachiho,Tsegede, Kolla
    Wogerraแฃ Waldiba and Wolkaitโ€

    Table โ€“ Tigray territories from the book โ€“ The Earth and its Inhabitants

    แŠจแˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŒˆแˆˆแ€แ‹ แ‹ญแˆ… แŒฝแˆแ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‰ 1880แ‹Žแ‰น แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆƒแŠ•แˆต แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆชแ‰ฑ แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต
    แ‰ แŠแ‰ แˆฉแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹แˆ แ‰ แŒแ‹œแ‹ แŠจแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แ‹จแŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠแŠซแˆ แˆถแˆณแ‹ญแ‰ฒแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆญแ‰…
    แˆœแ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแˆธแˆ‹แˆš แ‰ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ™แ‹ซ แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญ แŠแ‹:: แ‹ญแˆ… แ‰ 1880แ‹Žแ‰น แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแˆจแ‹ณแ‹ แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต: แŒ แˆˆแˆแ‰ต : แ‹‹แˆแ‹ตแ‰ฃ : แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แŒฃ : แ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰
    แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ:: แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆตแˆ แŒ แ‰…แˆถ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŠแŒแˆจแŠ• แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•
    แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆตแˆญ แŠแ‰ แˆฉ::
    โ€œแ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แˆตแˆˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠแ‹ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ
    แ‹จแŒ แ‰€แˆˆแˆแŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ โ€ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‹ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แŠ• แ‹ญแˆ„ แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒ แ‹ซแˆณแ‹จแŠ“แˆ:: แŠจแŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‰ แŠแ‰ตแˆต
    แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹ญแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆฉ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แŠแ‹? แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ตแข แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต
    แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แŒ“แ‹แกแก

    2/ แ‰ แŠฃแŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆตแˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ โ€“ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ
    แ‰ แŠฃแŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต (1818 โ€“ 1868 แŠฅ.แŠค.แŠ ) แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แˆตแˆ˜ แŒˆแŠ“แŠ“ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹Š แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต แŠแ‰ แˆฉ:: แ‰ แ‹จแ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹
    แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ตแŠ• แŠ แˆธแŠ•แˆแ‹แฃ แˆ›แ‹•แˆ‹แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠจแˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ฑ แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹แฃ แ‰€แŒฃแ‹ญ แˆซแ‹•แ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹
    แ‹จแˆแ‹•แˆซแ‰ฅแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ•แŠ• แ‰ดแŠญแŠ–แˆŽแŒ‚ แŠฅแ‹šแˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ˜แˆจแ‰ต แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แˆˆแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แŠจแ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ
    แŠ แ‹แˆฎแ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ต แŒ‹แˆญ แŒแŠ•แŠ™แŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆตแˆญแ‰ฐแ‹ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‹จแŠ แ‹แˆฎแ“แ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แŒฅแ‰ แ‰ แŠžแ‰ฝแŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ
    แˆˆแˆ›แˆตแ‰€แˆจแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ“ แŒฅแ‰ฅแ‰… แŒแŠ•แŠ‘แŠแ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ˜แˆตแˆจแ‰ตแฃ แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต แˆแŒƒแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆˆแŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แˆตแ‹Šแˆต แŠขแŠ•แŒ‚แŠแˆญ
    แŠฅแˆตแŠจแˆ˜แ‹ณแˆญ แ‹ฐแˆญแˆฐแ‹ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ แŠ แ‹แˆฎแ“แ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แŒ แ‰ขแ‰ฃแŠ• แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต
    แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰ฐแ‹‹แˆ:: แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ…แˆ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ™แ‹ซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰ฐแ‹ แˆตแˆˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆชแ‰ฑ แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ
    แŒฝแˆแ‹‹แŠ แˆ:: แ‹จแŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŒแŠ•แŠ‘แŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆปแŠจแˆญ แˆฒแŒ€แˆแˆญแฃ แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹žแ‰ฝ
    แˆตแˆˆแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒฅ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ˆแ‰… แแˆ‹แŒŽแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แŒจแˆ˜แˆจ::
    แ‹จแŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จintelligence แˆฐแ‹Žแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ“แˆญแˆ‹แˆ›แŠ“ แ‹จแŒธแŒฅแ‰ณแ‹ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆ
    แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‹ซแ‹แ‰ƒแ‰ต แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‰ตแ‹•แ‹›แ‹ แ‹ˆแŒฃ:: แ‹จแŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹™ Topographical and Statistical
    Department of The War Office แŠค . แˆฒ แŠฉแŠญ (A. C. Cook) แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆ แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹›แ‹Š แŠฎแˆŽแŠแˆ
    แŠ แˆ›แŠปแŠแŠแ‰ต แˆตแˆˆ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŠจ15แŠ›แ‹ แŠญแแˆˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŒ€แˆ˜แˆฎ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แŠฅแ‹แˆฎแ“แ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ฐแŒปแ‰
    แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ต แ‰ฃแŠ•แ‹ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแŒ แˆญแ‹˜ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ:: แ‹จแˆšแ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰€แ‹ แ‹ญแˆ„ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰  1867 แ‹“.แˆ แŠฅ.แŠค.แŠฃ
    แ‹จแ‰ณแ‰ฐแˆ˜แ‹ แ‰ แŒแˆตแ‰ฒแ‰ท แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แˆˆแŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹ แˆ€แ‹แˆต แŠฆแ แŠฎแˆ˜แŠ• แˆŽแ‹ˆแˆญ แˆ€แ‹แˆต แŒแ‰ฅแŠ แ‰ต (House of
    Common lower House) แ‹ญแ‹แˆ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠแ‹:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแค แ‹จแ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ
    แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ฐแŒฝแแˆ:: แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹แˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แˆตแˆˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแˆ แ‰ แŠฃแŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆตแˆ แ‹ญแˆแŠ•
    แŠจแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แŠแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แˆตแˆญ แ‹ญแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆฉ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆญ แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แ‹ซแ‰ตแ‰ณแˆ::

    โ€œThe Provinces of Amhara are : Simen, Waldibba, Wolkait,Wogera,Chilga, Kuara, Belesa,
    Fogerra, Damot, Gojjam, Begemidir, Beshilo โ€ฆ.. Waldiba situated to the NW of Semein
    between the Tekeze and the Angereb, extends as far as the junction of the two rivers. Welkait is
    to the west Of Waldiba it is intersected through its whole length by the two river tekuar and
    guang. It is more wooded than waldiba..โ€ (Routes in Abyssinia (printed in 1867 G.C) page 188)
    แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠญแแˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰ แˆญ แŠฅแŠ“ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แŠฅแŠแˆ›แŠ•
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ซแˆปแˆ› แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‹ญแŠแŒแˆจแŠ“แˆแกแก
    โ€œThe territory of Tigre whose capital is Adwa, is bounded on the West by Shire, on the
    Southwest by Temben and Adet on the South by Geralta on the South โ€“East by Haramat, on
    the East by Agame, and on the North by the rivers of Mereb and Belessaโ€
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ตแˆต? แ‰ฅแˆŽ แˆˆแˆšแŒ แ‹ญแ‰… แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ• แค แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆญแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆแŠ•
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆแ‰ตแˆ˜แˆตแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แˆฒแˆ แŠ แˆตแแˆฎแ‰ณแˆ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŒˆแŒฝ 187 โ€“ 188 แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แŒแ‹›แ‰ต
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แˆฒแˆ แ‹ญแŒˆแˆแŒธแ‹‹แˆ
    โ€œThe territory of Tigray whose capital is Adwa is bounded on the west by Shire, on the south
    west by Temben and Adet, on the south by Geralta, on the South East by Haramat, on the East
    by Agamae, and on the North by the Rivers Mereb and Belessaโ€
    Map โ€“ northern Ethiopia areas
    แŠฅแ‹šแˆ… แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰  18แ‰ฐแŠ›แ‹ แŠญแแˆˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ–แ‰ฝ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ซแˆปแˆ› แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แˆแŒฆแ‰ณแˆ::
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‰ แˆแ‹•แˆซแ‰ฅ โ€“ แˆฝแˆฌ แค แ‰ แˆแ‹•แˆซแ‰ฅ แ‹ฐแ‰กแ‰ฅ โ€“ แ‰ฐแˆแ‰คแŠ• แŠฅแŠ“ แŠ แ‹ดแ‰ต แค แ‰ แ‹ฐแ‰กแ‰ฅ โ€“ แŒˆแˆญ
    แŠ แˆแ‰ณ แค แ‰ แˆแˆตแˆซแ‰… โ€“ แŠ แŒ‹แˆœ แคแ‰ แˆฐแˆœแŠ• โ€“ แˆ˜แˆจแ‰ฅแŠ“ แ‰ แˆˆแˆณ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹:: แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆฐแŠแ‹ถแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŠ แŒผ
    แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆตแˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŠแŒแˆจแŠ• แค แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ::
    แŠจแ‹›แˆต แ‰ แŠแ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠแ‰ แˆฉแŠ•? แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆฐแŠแ‹ต แŠฅแŠ•แˆ˜แˆญแˆแˆญ::
    3/ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ โ€“ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰€แ‹ แŠจแŠ แŒผ แŠขแ‹ฎแŠ แˆต แˆžแ‰ต แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แค แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต แŠฅแˆตแŠชแŠแˆฑ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ
    แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹ญแ‰ฃแˆ‹แˆ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ›แ‹•แŠจแˆ‹แ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆซแ‰ตแˆ:: แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ถแ‰ฝ
    แ‹จแŒˆแŠแŠ‘แ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆชแ‰ฑ แˆ›แ‹•แŠจแˆ‹แ‹Š แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆญ แ‹จแŒ แ‹แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แˆ›แ‹•แŠจแˆ‹แ‹Š แ‹จแˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แˆ•แŒ
    แ‰ แˆŒแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แŠณแŠ• แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแฅแŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแฅ แ‹‹แˆแ‹ตแ‰ฃ แฅ แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แŒฃแฅ แŠฎแˆจแˆ แŠฅแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ
    แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ:: แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ แŠฅแŠแˆ†!

    แŒ€แˆแˆต แ‰ฅแˆฉแˆต แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆˆแ‹ แˆตแŠฎแ‰ตแˆ‹แŠ•แ‹ณแ‹Š แฅ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ต แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰ถ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ
    แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ต แˆแŠ• แ‰ตแˆ˜แˆตแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ แˆจแฅ แ‰แˆแŒญ แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แˆแŒฆแ‰ณแˆ:: แŠฅแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ฑ แˆ˜แˆตแแŠ• แŒแ‹›แ‰ฑ แ‹จแ‰ต
    แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆจแฅ แ‹จแ‰ตแŠ›แ‹ แˆ˜แˆตแแŠ• แˆ›แŠ•แŠ• แ‹ญแŒˆแ‹› แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆจ แ‰ แˆฐแŠแ‹ แ‰ฐแŠ•แ‰ตแŠ–แ‰ณแˆ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต
    แˆตแˆˆ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แˆฒแˆ แˆแˆตแŠญแˆญแŠแ‰ฑแŠ• แ‹ญแˆฐแŒฃแˆ :: Travel to discover source of the Nile
    Volume 3 page 582 แˆ‹แ‹ญ
    โ€œTigre is bounded by the territory of the Bahirenegash that is by the river Mereb on the East and
    Taccazze upon the west. It is about one hundred and twenty miles broad from E. to W. and two
    hundred from N. to S. โ€œ
    แŒ€แˆแˆต แ‰ฅแˆฉแˆต แ‰ แ‹šแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ‰ Chapter 10 แˆ‹แ‹ญ Geographical division of Abyssinia into province
    แ‰ แˆšแˆˆแ‹ แŠ แŠ•แ‰€แŒน แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒฅ แ‰แˆแŒญ แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‹ซแˆตแ‰€แˆแŒ แ‹‹แˆ
    The first division is called Tigre, between Red Sea and the river Tekeze. Between that River
    (Tekeze) and the Nile Westwards where it bounds the Oromo, it is called Amhara.
    แŠซแˆˆ แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แ‹ˆแˆจแ‹ต แ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒฅ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฉแŠ• แˆฒแ‹ซแˆตแˆจแ‹ณ โ€œTekezze is the natural boundary between Tigre
    and Amharaโ€

    แŠจแˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆˆแŠ แ‰ฅแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰€แˆฑแ‰ต แˆŠแ‰ƒแ‹แŠ•แ‰ต แ‰ แŒแ‹œแฃ แ‰ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹œแŒแŠแ‰ต แŠ แ‹ญแŒˆแŠ“แŠ™แˆ:: แˆˆแˆแˆณแˆŒ แ‰ แŠ แŒผ
    แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แŠ แˆŠแˆต แˆฌแŠญแˆˆแˆต แˆแˆจแŠ•แˆณแ‹Š (French) แŠแ‹:: แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ•
    แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‹จแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹›แ‹Š แŠแ‹ (British):: แŒ€แˆแˆต แ‰ฅแˆฉแˆต แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แˆตแŠฎแ‰ตแˆฝ
    (Scottish)แŠแ‹:: แŒแŠ• แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹จ แŒแ‹œ แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹ซแ‹ฉแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒˆแŠแ‹˜แ‰กแ‰ตแŠ• แŒฝแˆแ‹‹แˆ:: แ‹จแˆšแŠ“แŒˆแˆฉแ‰ต
    แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠ“ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹:: แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ต แˆแŠ• แŒแ‹œแˆ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠ“แ‰ตแŠ“!

    4/ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‰ 1630แ‹Žแ‰นแˆต แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แˆตแˆญ แŠแ‰ แˆจแ‰ฝ?
    แ‰ 16แŠ›แ‹ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แŠ แŒ‹แˆ›แˆฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแˆ‰ แ‹ซแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆ˜แ‹›แŒแ‰ฅแ‰ตแˆ แ‹จแˆšแŠ“แŒˆแˆฉแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŠแ‹:: แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ
    แ‹ˆแŒˆแŠ–แ‰ฝ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแŒ‹แŒแˆž แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‰€แˆฐแ‹ แ‹จ แˆ›แŠ‘แŠคแˆ แ‰ แˆฌแ‹ณแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฐแŠแ‰ตแŠแ‹ แ‹ซแŠ•แŠ‘ แŠแ‹:: แ‹ญแˆ„
    แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‰ 1634 แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แŒธแˆ“แŠแ‹แˆ แŠขแˆ›แŠ‘แŠคแˆ แ‰ แˆฌแ‹ณ แ‹ญแ‰ฃแˆ‹แˆ:: แ‰ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ•
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แˆแŒงแˆ:: แŠฅแˆฑแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆŒแˆŽแ‰น แŒธแˆ“แแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰ แˆญ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ
    แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œแŠ• แ‰ฐแˆปแŒแˆจแ‹ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแˆแˆ::
    ยซTractatus tres historico-geographici (1634): A seventeenth century historical and geographical
    account of Tigray, Ethiopia (Aethiopistische Forschungen) 1634ยป แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ€แ แ‹จแˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆชแ‹ซ แˆแ‹•แˆซแ
    แˆตแˆˆ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‹ญแˆ‹แˆ::
    โ€œAmong all the kingdoms that the Emperor of Ethiopia possesses today one of the greatest if not
    the greatest and the most important is the kingdom Tigre. From north to south, that is from the
    limits of the Hamasen to Enderta, it covers an areas of from ninety to one hundred leagues (3.2
    miles); and from the east, which is besides Dancali, located at the entrance to the Red sea to
    the southern end of the Red Sea, to the west bounded by the Tekezze River beside the Semen,
    it covers an area of similar size, so that the Kingdom has a nearly circular shape.โ€
    แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠ‹แˆ‹ แŠฅแ‹จแˆซแ‰…แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แˆ‚แ‹ตแŠ“ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แŠ แŠ แŒผ แ‹˜แˆญแ‹“ แ‹ซแ‹•แ‰†แ‰ฅ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แŠ• แˆตแˆญ
    แŠแ‰ แˆญแ‰ฝ? แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ต

    5/ แ‰ แŠฃแŒผ แ‹˜แˆญแ‹“ แ‹ซแ‹•แ‰†แ‰ฅ ( 14แŠ›แ‹ แŠญแแˆˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•) แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ
    โ€“ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ แˆฐแŠแ‹ถแ‰ฝ
    แŠ แŒผ แ‹˜แˆญแ‹“ แ‹ซแ‹•แ‰†แ‰ฅ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แŠจแ‰ฐแŠแˆฑ แˆƒแ‹ซแˆแŠ“ แˆŠแ‰… แŠแŒˆแˆตแ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แŠแ‰ แˆฉ:: แ‰ แ‰€แ‹ตแˆž
    แˆตแˆ™ แˆแŒ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ แŠ แˆแŠ• แˆตแˆ™ แŠฆแˆฎแˆšแ‹ซ แŠ แ‹‹แˆฝ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ แŠ แŠซแ‰ฃแ‰ข แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ˆแˆˆแ‹ฑแ‰ต แŠ แŒผ แ‹˜แˆญแ‹“ แ‹ซแ‹•แ‰†แ‰ฅแฅ แ‹จแˆ€แ‹ตแ‹ซ
    แˆฒแ‹ณแˆž แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต แˆแŒ… แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‰ฝแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแˆŒแŠ’แŠ• แŠ แŒแ‰ฅแ‰ฐแ‹แฅ แ‰ 37 แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแŠแŒˆแˆฑ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ แ‹“แ‰ แ‹ญแ‰ต
    แˆตแˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แŠ แŠจแŠ“แ‹แŠแ‹ แŠ แˆแˆแ‹‹แˆ:: แŠฅแŠ’แˆ แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต แŠจแแ‰ฐแŠ› แ‹จแŒฅแ‰ แ‰ฅ แแ‰…แˆญ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แŠจแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹
    แ‰ฃแˆปแŒˆแˆญแฅ แˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ตแŠ• แŒฝแˆแ‹‹แˆ:: แ‰ แˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แˆ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแŒปแ‰ แ‹ตแŒ‹แ
    แ‰ แˆ˜แˆตแŒ แ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แ‹ซแˆŒ แˆ˜แŒปแˆ•แแ‰ต แ‰ แˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ฐแŒฝแˆแ‹‹แˆ:: แŠจแŠแ‹šแˆ… แˆ˜แŒปแˆ“แแ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แ‰ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ
    แŠ•แ‰กแˆจ แ‹•แ‹ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‹œแŠ“ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆƒแ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แŠแ‹:: แ‹œแŠ“ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ แŠจแˆƒแ‹ญแˆ›แŠ–แ‹ซแ‰ตแ‹Š แˆแ‰ฐแ‰ณแ‹
    แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ แˆตแˆˆ 14แŠ›แ‹‹ แŠญแแˆˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ แ‹แˆญแ‹แˆญ แŒฝแŽแ‰ณแˆ:: แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ•
    แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแŠญแแˆ‹แ‰ฐ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฑแŠ•แˆ แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰ แˆญ แŒฅแŠ•แ‰…แ‰… แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แ‹˜แŒแ‰ฆแ‰ณแˆ::
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ•แˆ แŠญแˆแˆ แ‰ แŠซแˆญแ‰ณแŠ“ แ‰ แŒฝแˆแ แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŠจแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแˆแŒธแ‹‹แˆ::
    Chart โ€“ List of Tigrai areas on Zena Axum book
    แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แˆ˜แˆแŠฉ แ‹จแˆšแŠแŒแˆจแŠ•แฃ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แแŒนแˆ แฃ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠ แŠซแˆ
    แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠแ‹::
    แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แˆ˜แŠฎแŠ•แŠ• Ethiopia: the land, its people , History and Culture แ‰ แˆšแˆˆแ‹ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ‰
    Page 351 แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹˜แˆญแ‹“ แ‹ซ แ‹•แ‰†แ‰ฅ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹แŠ•แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฐแŠแ‰ฐแ‹แŠ•
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แ‹ซแ‰€แˆญแ‰ แ‹‹แˆ
    โ€œThe Book of Axum.. Shows a traditional schematic map of Tigray with its city Axum at its center
    surrounded by the thirteen principal provinces: Tembein, Shire, Seraye, Hamasen, Bur, Sama,
    Agame, Amba Senait, Geralta, enderta, Sahart and Abergeleโ€
    แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแˆ The World through Maps: A History of Cartography (แŒˆแŒฝ 352 แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ฑ)แกแก
    แ‰ John R. Short แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‹จแ‹“แˆˆแˆ แŒ‚แŠฆแŒแˆซแŠแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฐแˆญแŠจแ‹ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰ 15แŠ›แ‹ แŠญแแˆˆแ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฉ
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒแ‹›แ‰ถแ‰ฝ แŠจแˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒ แ‰€แˆฑแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แˆ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แŒฅแ‰€แˆต แ‹ซแˆตแˆจแ‹ณแˆ:: แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ
    แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แˆ˜แˆแŠฉ แ‹จแˆšแŠแŒแˆจแŠ•แฃ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แแŒนแˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠ แŠซแˆ
    แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠแ‹::

    6/ แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ แŠญแˆˆแˆ‹แŠ• แŠ แŠ•แˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ต
    แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ• แ‹ˆแŒฃแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ“ แŠ แˆญแ‰ แŠžแ‰ฝ แ‰แŒฃ แ‹ซแˆณแˆฐแ‰ แ‹ แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ•แฃ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แ‰ แ‰ตแŠ–
    แˆˆแˆ˜แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‹ซแ‰€แ‹ฐแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ แ‹ญแ‹ แŠ แ‹ˆแŒฃ:: แ‹จแ‹šแˆ… แŠฅแ‰…แ‹ต แŠแ‰ณแ‹แˆซแˆช แŠจแˆ†แŠ‘แ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฑ แ‹แˆบแˆตแ‰ฑ Baron
    Roman Prochร zka แŠ แ‰ขแˆฒแŠ•แ‹ซ แ‹˜ แ“แ‹แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ฃแˆจแˆ (Abyssinia: the Powder barrel) แ‰ แˆšแˆ
    แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆตแ‰€แˆ˜แŒ แ‹แฃ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแ‹แ‹ซแŠ•แŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แŒแ‹›แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แˆ˜แŠจแ‹แˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ€แŠจแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แˆ
    แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹แˆซแ‰ต แŠฅแˆญแˆต แ‰ แˆญแˆต แˆˆแˆ›แŠ“แŠจแˆตแฃ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‰ แ‹˜แˆญ แˆ˜แŠจแˆˆแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแ‰…แ‹ต แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ แˆญ
    แŒ€แˆ˜แˆจ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆแˆ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ตแฃ แ‹˜แˆญแŠ•แŠ“ แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‰ฃแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ แˆฝแŠ•แˆธแŠ“ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แŠ แˆแˆตแ‰ต แ‰ฆแ‰ณ
    แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆแˆ แŠญแˆแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ: แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซ(แ‰ตแŒแˆฌ); แˆแˆจแˆญ: แŠฆแˆฎแˆž-แˆฒแ‹ณแˆ›: แˆธแ‹‹แŠ“ แˆถแˆ›แˆŒ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹:: แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ•
    แ‹ญแˆ„แŠ•แŠ• แ‹จแŒแ‹›แ‰ต แˆฝแŠ•แˆธแŠ“ แˆฒแ‹ซแŠซแˆ‚แ‹ต แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒˆแ‹ แ‹˜แˆญแŠ“ แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ• แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‹จแˆšแŠจแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹แˆ แˆฐแˆ›แŠ•แ‹ซ
    แ‰ แˆƒแ‹ซ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆญแˆ… แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แŠจแˆฐแˆ›แŠ•แ‹ซ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ•แ‹แ‰ก แ‹จแˆšแŠ“แŒˆแˆจแ‹แŠ• แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ
    แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแ‹จ แŠญแˆแˆ‰ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแ‹ฐแˆ‹แˆ:: แˆธแ‹‹แŠ• แŒแŠ• แˆˆแ‰ฅแ‰ปแ‹ แˆˆแ‹ญแ‰ถ แˆ˜แ‰†แŒฃแŒ แˆญ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆ แ‰ฅแˆŽ แ‰ แˆ›แˆ˜แŠ‘ แˆธแ‹‹แŠ• แŠ“
    แˆ€แˆจแˆญแŠ• แˆˆแ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆˆแ‹ญแ‰ถแ‰ณแˆ:: แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠแŒฅแ‰ฃแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆตแŠ•แˆ˜แŒฃ แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‹จแ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แˆฝแŠ•แˆธแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‰ตแŠ“
    แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ“ แŒ แˆˆแˆแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ“ แŠคแˆญแ‰ตแˆซ แŠ แˆแ‰ฐแŠซแ‰ฐแ‰ฑแˆ:: แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆตแˆญ แŠแ‰ แˆฉ::
    แŠฅแ‹šแˆ… แ‹จแŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ•แŠ“ แ‹˜แˆญแŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ณแ‹จแ‹ แฃ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ
    แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ โ€“ แŠจแ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แ‰ฐแˆปแŒแˆฎ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆ:: แˆ‹แˆแ‰แ‰ต 25 แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹Žแˆž แˆฒแŠซแˆ„แ‹ตแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹
    แ‹จแŠจแˆจแˆ™แ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต โ€“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด โ€“ แŠ แˆ‹แˆ›แŒฃ แŠฎแˆจแˆ แ‰ แแŒนแˆ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ
    Map โ€“ Tigray during Fascist Italy

    7/ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ต แˆšแ‹ตแ‹ซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŒแˆ˜แ‹ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŠแˆฑแ‰ต แŠแŒฅแ‰ฅ แŠ แˆˆ:: แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹แˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒธแŒˆแ‹ดแŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ
    แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠซแˆˆแˆ‰ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŒฅแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆฉแŠ“ แŠ แŒผ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆˆ แˆฅแˆ‹แˆด แ‹จแˆแˆตแˆซแ‰ƒแ‹Š
    แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แŒˆแ‹ฅ แŠจแŠแ‰ แˆฉแ‰ต แŠจแ‹ฐแŒƒแ‹แˆ›แ‰ฝ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆˆแˆฅแˆ‹แˆด แŒ‰แŒแˆณ แŠ แˆญแ‹“แ‹ซ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒฃแˆ‹แ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ โ€“ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“
    แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแ‹ฑแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠแ‹:: แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแˆตแˆ›แˆ›แ‹ แŠแŒฅแ‰ฅ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž โ€“ แ‹จแ‰€แ‹ณแˆ›แ‹ญ แ‹ˆแ‹ซแŠ”แŠ•
    แŠ แˆ˜แŒฝ แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰…แŒฃแ‰ต โ€“ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ•แŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠจแˆˆแˆ‰แ‰ต
    แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠแ‹::
    แŠฅแˆตแŠซแˆแŠ• แŠจแˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแŒˆแˆˆแŒฝแŠณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆฐแŠแ‹ถแ‰ฝ แˆˆแ‹šแˆ… แŠแŒฅแ‰ฅ แ‰ แ‰‚ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ‘แˆ : แŠซแˆญแ‰ณแŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ
    แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒ แˆˆแˆšแŒ แ‹ญแ‰… แˆฐแ‹ โ€“ แŠฅแŠแˆ†:: แ‹ญแˆ… แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แ‰ แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ–แ‰ฝ แ‰ 1928 แ‹“.แˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแˆซ แŠแ‹:: แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ•
    แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆแ‰ฅ แŠซแŒ แŠ‘ แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แˆˆแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ฑ แŠญแแˆˆแˆ€แŒแˆญ แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แˆฐแˆญแ‰ฐแ‹‹แˆ:: แ‹ซแŠ” แŒˆแŠ“ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆˆแˆฅแˆ‹แˆด แŒ‰แŒแˆณ
    แŠ แˆแŠจแ‹ณแˆ:: แ‹ซแŠ” แ‹จแ‰€แ‹ณแˆ›แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‰…แˆตแ‰ƒแˆด แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆจแˆ:: แ‹จแ‰€แ‹ณแˆ›แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‰…แˆตแ‰ƒแˆด แ‰ 1943 แŠแ‰ แˆญแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ
    แŒแŠ• แŠจแ‹› แ‰ฅแ‹™ แ‹“แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‰ แŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆฐแˆซ แŠแ‹:: แŠ แŠ•แ‰ฃแ‰ขแ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ถ แ‹ญแแˆจแ‹ต:: แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แŠแŒฅแˆˆแŠ•
    แˆตแŠ•แˆ˜แˆˆแ‰ต แŠซแˆญแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ญแˆ„แŠ•แŠ• แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‹แˆ::
    Map โ€“ north west Ethiopia in 1928

    8/ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ฑ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด
    แ‰ แŠซแˆแ‰ฅแˆชแŒ… แ‹ฉแŠ•แ‰จแˆญแˆฒแ‰ฒ แ‰ แŠ แแˆชแŠซ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ญแ‰ แˆแŒกแŠ•แˆ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญแŠ“ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ
    แŠจแแ‰ฐแŠ› แˆแˆญแˆแˆญ แŠซแ‹ฐแˆฉแ‰ต แˆฐแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‰ แ‹‹แŠแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‰€แˆฑแ‰ต แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญ แŠญแˆชแˆตแ‰ถแˆแˆญ แŠญแˆ‹แ“แˆ:
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠคแˆฎแ“ แŠ แ‰†แŒฃแŒ แˆญ 1990 ( แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แ‹ฒแˆต แŠ แ‰ แ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แŠจแˆ˜แ‹ซแ‹™ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ต แ‰ แŠแ‰ต) แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰… แ‹จแˆ†แŠ
    แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ แŠ แˆณแ‰ตแˆ˜แ‹ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แˆ‹แ‹ญแˆ แˆตแˆˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ด แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆ… แˆฒแˆ‰
    โ€œthe area concerned (welkait -Tsegede) separated from Tigray by impressive natural barrier of
    Setit Tekezze river has never been governed as part of Tigray at any period in the past, but has
    come under Gonder and Semein.โ€ (Christopher Clapham: Transformation and continuity in
    revolutionary Ethiopia (Cambridge: Cambridge university press 1988 pp 259)
    แˆตแŠ“แŒ แ‰ƒแˆแˆˆแ‹
    1. 1420แ‹Žแ‰น แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแ‰ฐแŒปแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแˆ˜แŠแ‹ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แˆ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‹ซแˆฐแˆจแ‹ณแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ
    แŒแ‹›แ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ–แ‰ฝ 13 แŠแ‰ แˆฉ:: แŠฅแŠแˆญแˆฑแˆ Tembein, Shire, Seraye, Hamasen, Bur, Sama, Agame,
    Amba Senait, Geralta, enderta, Sahart and Abergele แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹::
    แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ : แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แˆ แŠ แŠญแˆฑแˆ , Ethiopia: the Land, Its People, History and Culture By Yohannes
    Mekonnen. The World through Maps: A History of Cartography (แŒˆแŒฝ 352 แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆแŠจแ‰ฑ) By John R.
    2. 1634 แ‹“.แˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแŒปแˆแ‹ แ‹จ แŠฅแˆ›แŠ‘แŠคแˆ แ‰ แˆฌแ‹ณ แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แ Tractatus tres historico-geographici (1634):
    A seventeenth century historical and geographical account of Tigray, Ethiopia (Aethiopistische
    Forschungen) 1634ยป แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแˆจแ‹ณแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œแŠ• แ‰ฐแˆปแŒแˆจแ‹ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต
    แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆ‰แˆ
    3. แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ แˆ˜แˆณแแŠ•แ‰ต แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซแŠ• แŒŽแ‰ฅแŠแ‰ถ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แ‹จแŒ€แˆแˆต แ‰ฅแˆฉแˆต แˆ˜แŒฝแˆ“แแˆ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แ‹จแˆšแŠ“แŒˆแˆจแ‹
    แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œแŠ• แ‰ฐแˆปแŒแˆจแ‹ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆ‰แˆแกแก Travel to
    discover source of the Nile Volume 3 page 582
    4. แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแˆจแŒแŒกแ‰ต แ‹ซแŠ•แŠ‘ แŠแ‹:: แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ แˆญ
    แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แŠแ‹:; แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ด แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แˆตแˆญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแ‰ แˆฉ แ‰ แŒแˆแŒฝ แˆแˆจแŠ•แˆณแ‹Šแ‹ แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆจ แˆฌแŠญแˆˆแˆต
    5. แ‰ แŠ แŒผ แ‰ดแ‹Žแ‹ตแˆฎแˆต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ•แˆ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแˆ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŒ แŒแ‹ด แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ::
    6. แ‰ แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ• แŒแ‹œแˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‰ แ‹ฐแ‰กแ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆแˆ†แŠ’, แ‰ แ‹ฐแ‰กแ‰ฅ แˆแˆตแˆซแ‰… แŠ แ‰ แˆญแŒˆแˆŒ ;แ‰ แˆ แ‹•แˆซแ‰ฅ
    แˆฝแˆฌแŠ“ แŠ แ‹ฒแ‹ซแ‰ฆ แŠแ‰ แˆฉ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แŒ แŒแ‹ด แ‹‹แŒƒ แŠฎแˆจแˆ แŠฅแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ
    แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆฉแˆ
    7. แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ•แŠ“ แŒ แŒˆแ‹ดแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแŠจแˆˆแˆ‰แ‰ต แŠ แŒผ แŠƒแ‹ญแˆˆแˆฅแˆ‹แˆด แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹:; แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‰ 1943 แ‹“.แˆ
    แ‹จแ‰ฐแŠซแˆ„แ‹ฐแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแ‰€แ‹ณแˆ›แ‹ญ แ‹ˆแ‹ซแŠ”แŠ• แŠ แ‰ฅแ‹ฎแ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ แ‰€แˆแŠ“ แˆ•แ‹แ‰กแŠ•แˆ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰…แŒฃแ‰ต แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹: แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆŒแˆˆแ‹ แŠฅแŠแˆ† แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ›แˆตแˆจแŒƒ:: แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹ญแˆ„แŠ• แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แ‹จแˆฐแˆซแ‹ แ‰ 1928 แ‹“.แˆ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‹ซแŠ”แˆ แ‰ แŠ แŒผแ‹
    แŒแ‹œแˆ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ• แ‹ซแ‹ แŠแ‰ แˆญ
    8. แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰แŒฅแˆญแŠ“ แ‰ แˆšแŠแŒˆแˆฉแ‰ต แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แŠแ‹ แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ•แŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ดแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแŠจแˆˆแˆแŠแ‹
    แˆˆแˆšแˆˆแ‹แˆ โ€“ แ‹จแ‹˜แˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แŠญแˆแˆแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ซ แŒแ‹œ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ฐแ‹ แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ• แŠแ‹::
    แŒฃแˆแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŠซแˆญแ‰ณ แˆฒแˆฐแˆซ แ‹จแˆซแˆฑแŠ• แ‹จแ‹˜แˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แŒฅแŠ“แ‰ต แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ต
    แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ดแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹ซแŠซแˆˆแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆญ แŠแ‰ แˆญ:: แ‹ญแˆ„ แŠจแˆ†แŠ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต
    แ‰ตแ‹แˆแ‹ต แŠฅแŠ•แŠณแŠ• แŠ แˆ‹แˆˆแˆแ‹:: แ‰ณแ‹ตแ‹ซ แ‹ซแŠ” แŠ แ‰ฅแˆ‹แŒซ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‹ แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹แŠ“ แˆ•แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ดแ‰ต แŒˆแ‰ฃ?

    9. แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠฅแ‹แ‰… แ‹จแŠขแ‹ญแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แŠแŠญ แ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆฎแ‰ฝแˆ แˆแˆตแŠญแˆญแŠแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ซแ‹ แŠแ‹:: แ‹จแŠซแˆแ‰ฅแˆชแŒ…
    แ‹ฉแŠ’แ‰จแˆญแˆตแ‰ฒแ‹ แŠญแˆชแˆตแ‰ถแˆแˆญ แŠญแˆ‹แ•แˆ›แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแŒ แ‰ƒแˆˆแˆ‰แ‰ต
    โ€œthe area concerned (Welkait -Tsegede) separated from Tigray by impressive natural barrier of
    Setit Tekezze river has never been governed as part of Tigray at any period in the past, but has
    come under Gonder and Semein.
    10. แ‹จแŠ แŒผ แ‹ฎแˆ“แŠ•แˆต แ‹จแˆแŒ… แˆแŒ… แˆแ‹‘แˆ แˆซแˆต แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแˆป แˆตแ‹ฉแˆแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆจแŒ‹แŒˆแŒกแ‰ต โ€ แ‹จแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ•
    แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‹œแŠ• แ‰ฐแˆปแŒแˆจแ‹ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ด แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆ‰แˆโ€
    แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ›แŠ•แŠแ‰ต แŒ แ‹ซแ‰‚แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จ แˆƒแˆแˆณ แˆบแˆ… แˆฐแ‹ แŠแˆญแˆ› แŠ แˆฐแ‰ฃแˆตแ‰ แ‹ แŠแ‹
    แŒแ‹ดแˆฌแˆฝแŠ• แˆแŠญแˆญ แ‰คแ‰ต แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‹จแˆ„แ‹ฑแ‰ต:: แŠฅแŠ•แŒแ‹ฒแˆ… แ‹ญแˆ„ แˆแˆ‰ แŒซแŠ“: แ‹ˆแŠจแ‰ฃแŠ“ แŒแ‹ตแ‹ซ แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ต
    แˆƒแˆแˆณ แˆบแˆ… แˆฐแ‹ แŠแˆญแˆ› แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฃแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠจแ‰ปแˆ‰ แŠแŒปแŠแ‰ต แŠ แŒแŠแ‰ฐแ‹ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แ‰ขแŠ•แ‰€แˆตแ‰€แˆฑ แ‹จแˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ…แˆ
    แˆฐแ‹ แŠแˆญแˆ› แˆ›แˆฐแ‰ฃแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ‰ แˆ˜แŒˆแˆ˜แ‰ฑ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ แŠแ‹:: แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ณ แ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ แŠแ‹::
    แˆ›แŒ แ‰ƒแˆˆแ‹ซ
    แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠจแˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแŒ แ‰€แˆตแŠณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแ•แˆฎแŒแˆฐแˆญ แŠญแˆ‹แ•แˆ›แŠ•แŠ• แ‰‹แŠ•แ‰‹ แˆแŒ แ‰€แˆแŠ“ โ€œแ‹ˆแˆแ‰ƒแ‹ญแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แŒแ‹ด
    แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒตแ‹ซ แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ แˆ†แŠแ‹ แŠ แ‹ซแ‹แ‰แˆโ€:: แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ€แˆ˜แˆญแ‹ซ แŒแ‹œ แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆญ :
    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแŠซแ‰ฐแ‰ฑ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแ‹ แ‰ 1994 แŠแ‹::
    แŠฅแŠ”แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆณแˆฐแ‰ แŠ แŒแŠ• แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠแ‹:: แ‰ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แˆ†แŠแŠ• แˆตแˆˆ แ‹ตแŠ•แ‰ แˆญ แŠฅแ‹ซแ‹ˆแˆซแŠ• แŠแ‹:: แŠจแ‹šแˆ…
    แ‹จแˆ›แŠ•แŠแ‰ต แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„แˆ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‹ซแ‹ซแ‹˜ แ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ แˆฐแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŒˆแ‹ฐแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆฐแ‰ฃแ‹Š แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ถแ‰ฝ แŒ‰แ‰ฃแŠค แŠ แˆณแ‹แ‰‹แˆ::
    แ‹ˆแ‹ดแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹จแˆ„แ‹ตแŠ• แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•?__

  41. Concerned Citizen says:


    Is it possible to have an Amharic language part on your blog? We know the so called Experts from abroad are getting information about us from Blogs, face book and other internet sources accepting them as they are coming without verifying and also checking the truth and authenticities. Not only they are getting them easily but also they are using them against us.

    In order to talk openly and to the very detail about our country among us for the sake of solving the issues facing us, it is important to communicate among us using the methods and systems only we can understand them.


    แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠ›แก แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆˆแˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆฝแŒแŒแˆฉ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ณแŠ แŠ แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•แˆ?
    แˆ˜แˆˆแˆต แ‹œแŠ“แ‹Šแก แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จแˆฑ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแŠ› แ‹จแŒญแ‰แŠ• แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แŠแ‹
    แŒ‹แ‹œแŒ แŠ›แก แ‰ แˆฝแŒแŒแˆฉ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แŠ•แŠ›แ‹แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแ‰ฐแ แŠจแˆ˜แ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆชแ‹ซ แ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ฅ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แˆ˜แŠจแˆˆแˆ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แ‰ แŠ แ‰ฅแ‹ญ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆซแˆฑแŠ• แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹‹แŒฝแŠฆ แŠซแˆ‹แ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแŠ“ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ฑ แŠซแˆแ‰†แˆ˜ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ซแˆแ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆจแŒ  แŒŠแ‹œแ‹ซแ‹Š แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแŒˆแˆˆแˆˆแ‹แก แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŒจแ‰†แŠแ‹แก แŒฅแ‰…แˆ™แŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‹แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŠแŠซแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแŒŽแ‹ณแ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰†แŒ แˆญแˆ แ‹ˆแ‹ญ?
    แˆ˜แˆˆแˆต แ‹œแŠ“แ‹Šแก แ‹จแŒญแ‰แŠ–แ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแŠ“แŒˆแˆจแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆตแˆ›แ‰ตแฃ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‹ญแ‰€แ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆ˜แˆˆแˆตแฃ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแŒ แ‹แŠ• แ‹แˆณแŠ” แˆ˜แ‰€แ‰ แˆแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ›แˆ˜แŠ“แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ƒแ‹แˆž แ‰ แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ฃแˆญ แˆ˜แˆแ€แˆ แ‰ แˆฑ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ แ‹จแŠ แŒแ‹ดแ‰ณ แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ แŠจแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแ‰ฃแˆฐ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแ‰ แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แŠจแŠ› แŠ แ‹ซแŒˆแŠแˆแกแก
    แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแŒ‹แŒ‹แˆšแก แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŠ แŠจแˆญแŠซแˆฉแŠ• แˆตแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ แˆญแŠแ‹แŠ“ แŠฅแˆฑแŠแ‰ฑแŠ• แˆตแˆ‹แˆ˜แŠแˆ˜แŠแ‹ แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แŠ‹แˆ‹ แŠ แ‰ฅแ‰…แ‰ถแˆˆแ‰ณแˆแกแก

    แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ…แŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แˆญแŠซแ‰ณ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆแ€แˆ›แ‰ธแ‹ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แ‹ตแˆแ…แฃ แ‰ แ…แˆแแฃ แ‰ แŠแˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‹จแˆฐแˆ›แŠ“ แ‹ซแ‹จแ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆตแŒแ‰ฆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒแŠแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแŠ“ แ‹จแŠแˆฑ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแŠจแ‹ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแŠ“ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแˆตแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŒ‹แˆแŒฅ แ‰ฐแŒจแ‰ฃแŒญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แˆแˆตแŠญแˆญ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆˆแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฐแ‹ซ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ตแŠแ‰ต แˆตแŠ•แ‰ต แˆ˜แˆตแ‹‹แ‹•แ‰ต แ‹จแŠจแˆแˆˆแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแŠจแˆแˆˆ แ‹ซแˆˆ แŠจ27 แˆšแˆŠแ‹ฎแŠ• แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆ›แŠ–แ‰ตแฃ แ‰ แŒŽแˆณแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แŠ•แ‹‘แˆต แŒŽแˆณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‰ แˆŒแˆ‹ แˆตแˆ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒก แˆ˜แŠจแ‹แˆแˆ แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆชแ‹ซ แ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ฅแˆ แˆ†แŠ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆ˜แŠจแˆˆแˆแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‰ แŠ แ‰ฅแ‹ญ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแˆฑแŠ• แ‰ แˆšแ‹ˆแŠญแˆ‰แ‰ต แŠ แˆแ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ฐแˆแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แˆตแˆ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆตแˆญแ‰ถ แˆˆแ‰ตแŒแˆซแ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰†แˆ˜ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ แ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แŒˆแ‹ณแ‹ญแŠ“ แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆช แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠฆแŠแŒ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแŠแˆฑ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แŠ แŠณแ‹ซแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆตแˆญแ‰ฐแ‹ แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆชแ‹ซ แ‹ฐแŠ•แ‰ฅ แŠ แ‹แŒฅแ‰ฐแ‹ แ‹ซแ€แ‹ฐแ‰แŠ“ แŠญแˆแˆแŠ• แŠจแˆแˆˆแ‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ• แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แŠฅแ‹จแˆฐแˆซ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ฑ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ฅแ‰† แˆˆแˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แŠ แˆแŽ แˆ˜แˆ„แ‹ตแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ญแ‰ปแˆˆแ‹ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ‰แกแก แ‹ˆแ‹ซแŠ”แŠ“ แˆปแ‰ขแ‹ซ แˆ˜แˆชแŠแ‰ฑแŠ• แ‹ญแ‹˜แ‹ แŠแ‹ แ‰ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆžแˆ‰แŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฐแŒแ‰ฃแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแŠ แ‹แˆฌแŠแ‰ต แ‹˜แˆญ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠฆแŠแŒ แ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠ แˆจแˆ˜แŠ”แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ฅแˆจแ‹ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แŒจแˆญแˆฐแ‹ แˆˆแˆ›แแˆจแˆต แ‹ญแˆ˜แ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แŒฅแ‹แ‰ตแŠ• แ‰ แŒแ‹ดแ‰ณแŠ“ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‰ แˆ†แŠแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แˆแ‹ตแˆญ แ‹จแŒซแŠ‘แ‰ฅแŠ•แกแก

    แŠ แแˆซแˆฝแŠ“ แŠ แŒฅแŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹แŠ• แŠ แŠ•แ‰€แ… 39แŠ• แˆˆแŒŠแ‹œแ‹ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠ‹แˆ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆตแˆ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹ฐแ‰กแ‰ฅ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆแ€แˆ˜แ‹แŠ• แ‰ฅแŠ“แŠแˆณ แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ‰ แ‹จแ‰ แ‹›แŠ“ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ฑ แ‹จแŠจแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แŒŽแŒƒแˆ แ‰ แˆฐแˆซแ‰ฐแŠ›แŠแ‰ฑแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰ฃแ‹ถ แŠฅแŒแˆฉ แŠฅแ‹จแˆ„แ‹ฐแŠ“ แŠซแˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ฅแˆซแ‰ต แ‰ แŒจแˆˆแˆ› แŠฅแ‹จแŠ–แˆจ แ‰ แŒฅแˆจแ‰ตแฃ แŒฅแˆซแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ฅแ‹›แ‰ต แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ˜แˆจแ‰ฐ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแŠ• แˆฒแ‰€แˆแ‰ฅ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แŠ–แˆฉ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแŠญแ‹ฐแ‹ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ
    แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แ‹จแŠ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹˜แˆˆแ‰€แก แ‹จแŠ แŠ แ‹ฒแˆต แŠ แˆˆแˆ›แ‹จแˆแŠ“ แ‹จแˆตแŠ•แ‰ต แŒ€แŒแŠ“แ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ“ แˆŠแ‰ƒแ‹แŠ•แ‰ต แŠฅแ‰ตแ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰€แ‰ แˆจแ‰ แ‰ต แŒŽแŒƒแˆ แˆ…แ‹ญแ‹Žแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹ตแŒˆแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ แ‰ณแŒฅแˆฎ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆแŒฅแˆฎ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‰ แ‰… แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆฐแŠญแˆญแˆˆแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แŒ€แŒแŠ“แ‹‹ แŒฃแ‹ญแ‰ฑ แŠ แ‹ตแ‹‹ แ‰ แ‹˜แˆ˜แ‰ฐแ‰ฝแ‰ แ‰ต แŒŠแ‹œ แ‹จแŒŽแŒƒแˆแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‰ณแ‹ฐแˆญ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆแˆแˆแŒ แŠแ‹ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ฝแŠ“ แŠจ5000 แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแˆท แ‹จแˆ˜แˆซแ‰ฝแ‹ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆ แŒฆแˆญแŠแ‰ฑแŠ• แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠ แ‰…แŒฃแŒซ แ‹ซแˆตแ‹ซแ‹˜แŠ“ แˆˆแŒฅแ‰แˆญ แˆฐแ‹ แˆแˆ‰ แ‹ตแˆ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ• แ‹ซแ‰ แˆฐแˆจแกแก แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ต แŒฅแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‹Š แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆซแˆจแˆตแŠ“ แ‰ดแŠญแŠ–แˆŽแŒ‚ แŠฅแŒฅแˆจแ‰ต แ‹ญแ‹žแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹ญแˆ… แ‰ฃแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แŠ–แˆฎ แŒแŠ• แ‹จแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แŒˆแ‰ แˆฌ แˆˆแ‰ฅแ‰ปแ‹ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแŠ• แ‹จแˆ˜แ‰€แˆˆแ‰ฅ แ‰ฝแˆŽแ‰ณ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แแˆ‹แŒŽแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แŒŽแŒƒแˆ แ‰ แŒˆแŒ แˆญแŠ“ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แŒ‰แˆซแŒŒ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‰ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆฐแˆซแ‰ฐแŠ›แŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ณแ‰ณแˆชแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฃแˆ…แˆช แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แˆˆแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แ‹ˆแˆณแŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆ˜แˆ€แˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠจแˆ˜แŒฃ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แ‹จแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠแ‰ฑ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แ‹ซแˆˆแˆ›แ‰‹แˆจแŒฅ แ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆˆแŒ‹แฃ แ‰ แ‰คแˆปแŠแŒ‰แˆ แŒ‰แˆ™แ‹แŠธ แˆ€แˆจแˆญแŒŒแŠ“ แ‰ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠญแแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ฉ แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹จ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆˆแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแ‹˜แˆญ แˆ›แˆณแ‹ฐแ‹ตแŠ“ แˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แˆฐแˆˆแ‰ฃแˆ แˆ†แŠ—แˆแกแก แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹ แˆŒแˆ‹แ‹ แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แˆฐแ‹แŠแ‰ต แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ†แŠ แ‰ แˆตแˆซแŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แŠ—แŠ—แˆญ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆณแ‹จ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แˆฐแ‹แŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰€แ‹จแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‰ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แŠ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠ แ‹แˆฌ แ‰ แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแ‰คแˆปแŠ•แŒ‰แˆ แŒ‰แˆ™แ‹ แ‹จแˆฐแ‹ แŠ แ‹แˆฌแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแŒ‹แŒ‹แˆš แ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แˆฐแ‰†แ‰ƒ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆจแˆณแ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แˆ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒ‰แŠ“ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ‘ แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŒ‹แˆญ แŒแŠ•แŠ™แŠแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแŠญแˆแˆ‰ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ“แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ˜แˆชแŠแ‰ตแฃ แˆแƒแˆšแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ แˆตแˆแŒปแˆšแŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ฐ แŠฅแŠ แˆ˜แˆˆแˆตแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แ‰ฃแˆ‹แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแŒกแ‰ต แ‹จแ‰€แˆแ‹ต แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แ‹ซ แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆแŠ“แ‹แ‰€แ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‹ฐแŠ• แˆตแˆˆแˆšแŒจแˆแŒญแ‰ แŠแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แˆฐแ‹ แˆ˜แŒŽแ‹ณแ‰ต แŠฅแ‹จแˆณแ‰ แ‰ แ‰ฐแ‹ฐแŒ‹แŒ‹แˆš แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆณแˆตแˆ แ‹จแˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แ‹ซ แ‹แˆธแ‰ต แŠแŒˆแˆจแ‹แŠ“แˆแกแก

    แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ฑ แŒแŠ• แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰คแˆปแŠแŒ‰แˆ แŒ‰แˆ™แ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ฐ แŒแˆ›แˆฝ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ต แŠจแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แ‹ˆแˆตแ‹ถ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แˆ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แˆตแˆ‹แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠฅแ‰…แ‹ต แˆตแˆ‹แˆˆแ‹ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แŠจแ‰คแ‰ต แ‹ญแˆแ‰… แŒซแŠซแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆญแŒก แ‰ แ‰แŒฅแˆญ แ‰ตแŠ•แˆฝ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แˆฝแŠ“แˆปแŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฆ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แŒŽแŒƒแˆ 7 แŠ แ‹แˆซแŒƒแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆฏแ‰ต แˆตแ‰ตแˆ†แŠ• แˆ›แ‰ปแŠจแˆ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฐแŠ›แ‹แŠ“ แ‰ตแˆแ‰ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆžแ‰ƒแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒซแŠซ แŠจแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แˆ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฐแ‹ แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฑ แŠ แ‹แˆฌแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‹จแ‰ แ‹™แ‰ แ‰ต แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠ แŠ แ‰ฅแ‹›แŠ›แ‹ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ›แŠ“ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แŠแ‰ แˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆญแกแก แ‹จแˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แŠ แ‹แˆซแŒƒ แŒแˆ›แˆฝ แŠ แŠซแ‰ฃแ‰ขแ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญ แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆญ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แŠแ‹แกแก แŠจ85 แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แŠจ99 แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‹ซแˆ‹แŠแˆฐ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠ แˆ›แˆญแŠ› แ‰ฐแŠ“แŒ‹แˆช แŠแ‰ แˆญแกแก แ‹จแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ต แŠญแˆแˆ‰ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‹ˆแˆฐแŠ‘ แ‰ฐแˆแŒฅแˆฏแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‹ญแˆ…แˆ แŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แŠจแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ˆแŒฅแ‰ถ แˆฑแ‹ณแŠ• แŠฅแˆตแŠจแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‹ตแˆจแˆต แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แŠ แ‰…แ‹ถ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แ‹จแ‹ซแ‹˜ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แ‹จแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แŠ แŠซแˆ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแฃ แŠ—แˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแˆ แŠ แˆ›แˆฎแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠ แŒˆแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆ‰ แ‰ฅแˆŽ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แˆฒแˆฐแŒฃแ‰ธแ‹ แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆฐแ‹แŠแ‰ต แ‰ฃแˆ€แˆช แŒˆแŠ“ แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‹ซแˆแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒฃแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆ แ‹จแˆฐแ‹ แŠ แ‹แˆฌ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ฐแ‹แŠ“ แ‰ แŠ แ‰ แˆˆแ€แŒˆแ‹ แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆแŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ›แ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ“ แŒˆแŒ แˆฎแ‰ฝ แ‹ซแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ…แˆ แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆŠแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแˆฑแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ปแˆ‰แŠ“ แˆˆแ‰† แ‹ญแ‹ˆแŒฃ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแกแก แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆจแŒƒแŠแ‰ต แŠ แˆˆแŠ“ แ‰€แŠ• แˆฒแ‹ˆแŒฃ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแ‹ญแŠ“ แˆแ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‹˜แŒแŠ“แŠ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แŠแ‹ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆˆแŠแ‰ณแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆ˜แŠจแ‰ณแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆ›แˆแŠแ‹ แ‰ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆแ€แˆ™แ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆแŠ• แŠจแŒŽแŒƒแˆ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆˆแ‹จแ‰ต แŒŽแŒƒแˆœแŠ• แˆ˜แ‰ฐแŠจแˆ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแˆ… แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แˆแŠ•แŠ• แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‹จแˆˆแˆ…แˆ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆˆแˆ˜แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒˆแ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แ‰ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‹จแˆšแŒŽแ‹ณแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠซแŠจแˆ แ‰ตแˆแ‰… แŒ แ‰ฃแˆณ แ‹จแˆšแŒฅแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆแ‹•แŠฎ แ‰ แŒŽแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ฐแŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แ‹ˆแˆŽ แ‰ แˆ˜แ‹แˆˆแ‰… แ‰ แŒŽแŒƒแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแ‰ แ‰ƒ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆธแ‹‹ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แŒฅแŠ•แ‰ณแ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰ณแˆ‹แ‰… แ‰ณแˆชแŠญ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แŠขแˆ‹แˆ› แ‰ แˆ›แŠแŒฃแŒ แˆญ แ‰ แŠจแ‹ แ‹จแŒŽแ‹ณแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแŒŽแ‹ณ แ‹ซแˆˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแˆธแ‹‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ…. แ‰ แˆšแˆ แ‹จแŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแŠ“ แ‹›แ‰ป แˆ˜แˆแŠญแˆญ แˆ†แŠ–แˆ แŠแ‰ แˆญ แŠจแŒซแŠซ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแŠ• แ‰‚แˆ แˆแˆ‰ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‹ˆแŒฃแ‰ต แˆฒแˆ แ‰ แˆธแ‹‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแ‹แŠ• แˆแˆ‰ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆจแŒˆแกแก แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰€แ‹ แ‹ฐแ‰ฅแˆจ แ‰ฅแˆญแˆ€แŠ• แ‰ แŠ แŠ•แŒ‰แˆต แ‹˜แˆจแ‹ซแŠฅแ‰†แ‰ฅแŠ“ แˆ€แ‹ตแ‹ซแ‹Šแ‰ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠแ‰ฝ แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠขแˆˆแŠ’แˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แŒญแˆแˆญ แ‹จแŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฐแ‹ซ แ‹‹แŠ“ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แˆ†แŠ“ แ‹ซแŒˆแˆˆแŒˆแˆˆแ‰ฝแŠ“ แŠจ600 แŠ แˆ˜แ‰ณแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแˆตแ‰†แŒ แˆจแ‰ฝ แ‰ณแˆชแŠซแ‹Š แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แŠแ‰ฝแกแก แ‰ณแ‹ฒแ‹ซ แ‰ แ‹šแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แŒฅแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แŠฅแˆญแ‰€แ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠแŠ• แˆแˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ›แŠซแ‰ฐแ‰ต แ‹‹แŠ“ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆ› แ‹จแŠแ‰ แˆจแ‰ฝ แ‹ฐแ‰ฅแˆจ แ‰ฅแˆญแˆ€แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ดแ‰ต แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แˆตแˆ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ แˆแ‰ตแŒˆแŠแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆ†แŠ“ แˆแ‰ตแŠจแˆˆแˆ แ‰ปแˆˆแ‰ฝ? แ‰ แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ต แ‹จแ‹ฐแ‰ฅแˆจ แ‰ฅแˆญแˆ€แŠ•แˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆธแ‹‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แŠจแŒฅแŠ•แ‰ต แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŠจแˆแˆŽ แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แŠ แ‰ตแˆˆแ‰ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แŠแ‹แŠ•?

    แ‰ แŒ‰แˆซแŒŒแฃ แ‰ แ‹ˆแˆ‹แ‹ญแ‰ณแฃ แ‰ แŠจแˆแ‰ฃแ‰ณแฃ แ‰ แˆ€แ‹ตแ‹ซแฃ แ‰ แˆฒแ‹ณแˆ›แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰แ‰ตแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠ แˆ›แˆซ แ‰ฃแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ•แˆ แŠญแˆแˆแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆช แ‹จแŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆชแ‹ˆแ‰น แŠ แˆ›แŠซแŠแŠแ‰ต แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‰ แ‹ฐแˆแŠ“ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹ฐแˆญแˆถแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹‹แˆแŠ“ แŠฅแ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆˆแŠฅแˆญแˆป แˆแ‰น แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆฐแŠ แˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ต แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰คแ‰ต แ‰ แˆ†แŠแ‰ฝ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แ‹จแ‹ˆแˆ‹แ‹ญแ‰ณแŠ•แŠ“ แŒ‰แˆซแŒŒแŠ• แŒˆแ‰ แˆฌ แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆญแˆฐแ‹ แˆ˜แˆฌแ‰ต แŠ แŒฅแ‰ถ แˆฒแ‰ธแŒˆแˆญแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฟแŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰€แˆˆแ‰ฅ แ‰ฐแˆตแŠ—แ‰ต แˆตแ‰ตแˆˆแˆแŠ• แˆ›แ‹จแ‰ต แ‰ แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ต แŠจแˆ›แˆณแˆแˆญแŠ“ แˆ›แˆณแ‹˜แŠ• แŠ แˆแŽ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ• แŠ แŒˆแ‹›แ‹ แ‰ แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆˆแŠ›แŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแŒ แ‹ญแ‰… แŠแ‹แกแก แŠญแˆแˆ แŠจแˆแˆŽ แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แŠ แ‰ตแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ฑ แŠแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹ซแ‹ฉ แ‰ฝแŒแˆฎแ‰ฝ แŠฅแ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฑแ‰ฅแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ‰ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹จแ‹œแŒ‹แŠแ‰ต แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‰ฐแŒ แ‰ฅแ‰†แŠ“ แŠฅแˆฑแŠแ‰ฑ แ‰ฐแŠจแ‰ฅแˆฎ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆฉ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆฐ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆตแˆซแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‰ขแŠ–แˆจแ‹ แŠ–แˆฎแˆ› แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ฅแŠ• แˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ณแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แˆแˆ‰ แŒˆแŠ“ แ‹ตแˆฎ แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแŒแ‹ถ แŠ แˆแŠแ‰ แˆญแกแก แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แŒแŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‹แŠ• แŠจแˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ แŒ‰แˆแ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹แˆฐแ‹ต แ‹จแˆซแˆฑแŠ• แ‰ แ‰ฅแˆแŒซ แŠจแˆแˆŽ แˆซแˆฑแŠ• แˆฒแŒ แ‰…แˆ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแŠ• แŒแŠ• แ‰ แŠฅแˆตแˆซแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆแŠญ แ‰ แŠญแˆแˆ แŠ แˆตแˆฎ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆฐแ‰ƒแ‹ซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠจแ‹ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แŠฅแ‹จแŠจแ‰ฐแ‰ฐ แ‹ญแŒˆแŠ›แˆแกแก

    แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ… แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แŒŽแŠ‘ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแˆฐแ‰†แ‰ƒ แ‹ˆแ‰…แ‰ต แŒแŠ• แŠจแแƒแˆœแ‹ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ƒแˆจแ‰  แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆ†แŠแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‰€แŒฅแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ‰ แŠจแˆ†แŠ‘ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŒงแŒกแˆแ‹แŠ“ แ‹แ‹ตแ‰€แ‰ณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แŠ แ‹แŒฅแŠ– แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแŠจแ‹แ‹แŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแŒŽแ‹ณ แŠแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠ•แกแก แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แŠ แˆ›แˆซแŒญ แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแ“แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แŒฅแ‰แˆญ แ‹ฐแˆ˜แŠ“ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆฐแˆ›แ‹ญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹ซแŠ•แ‹ฃแ‰ แ‰  แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แŠ• แŠ แ‹แ‰€แ‹ แˆณแ‹ญแ‹˜แŒˆแ‹ฉ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆแŠญแŠญแˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‰ต แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆจแŠญ แˆ›แ‹˜แŒ‹แŒ€แ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆˆแˆซแˆฑ แ‹จแ‰†แˆ˜ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฅ แ‹ˆแ‹ญแˆ แ‰กแ‹ตแŠ• แˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ“ แˆˆแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ แŒ… แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆแˆ†แŠ แ‰ณแ‹แ‰† แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ƒแ‹ˆแˆ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠ แ‰‹แˆ แŠซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แŠจแˆ›แŠ•แŠ›แ‹แˆ แ‹จแˆ…แ‰ฅแˆจแ‰ฐแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠญแแˆŽแ‰ฝ แŒ‹แˆญ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แŒแŠ˜แ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆตแŒ แŠแ‰€แ‰€แŠ• แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แŠ แ‰‹แˆ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒฅแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹Šแ‹ซแŠ• แˆแˆ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰แŠ“ แŒแˆแŒฝ แ‰ฐแˆณแ‰ณแŠ แ‰ แˆšแˆ†แŠ‘แ‰ แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แŠ แˆแŠ– แ‰ แˆšแˆณแ‰ฐแแ‰ แ‰ต แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆจแŠญ แŠจแˆตแˆแˆแŠแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠซแˆแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐ แ‹จแ‰ฃแˆฐ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แˆŠแŒˆแŒฅแˆ˜แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แˆ›แˆตแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแ‰ แˆแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ธแˆ แˆ›แˆˆแ‰ต แŠ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แŠฅแŠ แˆตแ‰ฅแˆ€แ‰ต แŠแŒ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰แ‰ต แ‰ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆžแˆ‰แŠ“ แˆตแŠ•แ‰ต แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆธแŠจแˆ™ แ‹ญแ‰ฝแŠ• แŒฅแŠ•แ‰ณแ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ˜แˆแŠซแˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ• แŒจแˆญแˆฐแ‹ แˆณแ‹ซแŒ แแ‰ต แˆแŠ“แ‰†แˆ›แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹จแŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ แˆŒแˆ‹แŠ• แˆˆแˆ˜แŒฅแ‰€แˆ แˆฒแˆ แŠจแˆซแˆฑ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แŠฅแ‹จแˆธแˆจแˆธแˆจแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แ‹•แ‹ตแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ แŒ แ‰ แŒ  แˆˆแˆ แŠ แˆแˆญ แ‰ฐแˆธแŠญแˆž แŠ แ‹จแˆ„แ‹ฐ แˆˆแ‰ แˆญแˆ€แ‹ แˆฐแ‹ˆแ‰ฝ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแŒแˆต แˆˆแˆซแˆฑ แŒ แˆˆแ‰ต แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แˆˆแ‰ฃแ‹•แ‹ต แ‹ˆแ‹ณแŒ… แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ•แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ แ‹จแ‰ แˆญแˆ€แ‹ แˆฐแ‹Žแ‰ฝ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ฐแˆŒแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‰ แˆ˜แŒˆแŠ•แ‹˜แ‰ฅ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แˆ›แˆ˜แ‹›แ‹˜แŠ• แŠแ‹ แˆˆแŠแˆฑ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‹šแˆ… แŠ แ‹ญแŠแ‰ฑ แŠ แˆ˜แ‹›แ‹›แŠแŠ“ แˆˆแŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆฐแˆซ แ‰ แˆšแˆ˜แˆตแˆˆ แ‰ แŠ แˆˆแˆ แˆตแˆ˜ แŒˆแŠ“แŠ“ แ‹จแŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แ‹ˆแŠ•แ‹ แˆตแˆ แŠ แ‰ฃแ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰ฃแˆ‰ แ‹จแˆšแŒ แˆฉ แŠ แ‹ณแŠ•แ‹ต แ‰ แŠ› แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™ แŠจแŠญแˆแˆ แŠฅแˆตแŠจ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠจแŠ› แŠแŠ• แ‰ฃแ‹ฎแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‹จแˆตแ‰ฅแˆ€แ‰ต แŠแŒ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แŒŽแŒจแŠžแ‰ฝ แ‹ญแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แ‰คแ‰ณแ‰ฝแŠ• แˆ†แŠแ‰ฝ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ• แŒจแˆญแˆฐแ‹ แˆณแ‹ซแŒ แแ‰ต แˆแŠ“แ‰†แˆ›แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก

    แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแŠแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰€แŒฅแˆ‰ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ“ แ‰ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰ปแ‰ธแ‹ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ฐแˆจแ‹ฑแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ•แˆ แˆˆแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠแˆฑแŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‹œแŒ‹ แ‰ แŠแƒแŠ“แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹จแ‰ตแˆ แ‰ฆแ‰ณ แˆ˜แŠ–แˆญ แˆตแˆˆแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แŒแŠ• แˆแ‰ƒแ‹ฐแŠ› แŠ แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‰แˆแกแก แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แŠซแŠซแˆแˆแŠ•แฃ แŠจแˆ€แ‹ญแˆ›แŠ–แ‰ตแฃ แ‰ฅแˆ„แˆญแฃ แŒŽแˆณแฃ แŠญแˆแˆแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ˜แˆณแˆฐแˆ‰แ‰ต แˆ™แˆ‰ แ‰ แˆ™แˆ‰ แŠแƒแŠ“ แŠ แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹ˆแŒฅ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แแ‰…แˆญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆžแˆ‹แŠ“ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹ŠแŠแ‰ฑ แ‰ แ‹แˆตแŒก แ‹จแˆฐแˆจแ€แ‰ แ‰ต แ‰ฅแ‰แŠ“ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‹Š แ‹จแŒฆแˆญ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆแฃ แ‹จแˆ€แ‹ตแŠ•แŠแ‰ต แŠญแแˆแฃ แ–แˆŠแˆต แˆ€แ‹ญแˆแŠ“ แ‰ แˆŒแˆ‹แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆแ‰…แ‹ฐแŠ• แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆˆแŠ•แŠ• แ‹จแ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แŠซแŒฃแŠ• แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‰ต แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแ‰ฅแŠ“แˆ แ‰ แˆšแˆ แแˆญแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‹แŒ แ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆ›แ‰…แ‰แˆ แ‹ญแˆ˜แˆตแˆ‹แˆ‰แกแก แ‹จแˆšแˆแˆซ แŒแŠ• แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆแ…แˆแŠ“ แ‹แˆธแ‰ณแˆ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แˆŒแˆ‹ แŠ แ‹ญแ‹ฐแˆˆแˆแกแก แ‰ แ‹ˆแŠ•แŒ€แˆ แ‰ฐแ‹˜แแ‰†แŠ“ แ‰ แ‹แˆธแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰†แˆž แ‰ แˆฐแˆ‹แˆ แŠฅแ‰€แŒฅแˆ‹แˆ‰ แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠซแˆˆ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แˆžแŠ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แˆซแˆฑ แ‰ แˆซแˆฑ แŠฅแ‹ซแŒ แ‹ แ‹ซแˆˆ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‰ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘แˆ แŠจแŒ แ‰…แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆšแŠ’แˆตแ‰ฐแˆฉ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แ‰ แˆตแˆแŒฃแŠ• แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹ซแˆ‰แ‰ต แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆณแ‹ญแ‹ˆแˆตแ‹ฑแŠ“ แˆแŠ•แˆ แŠ แ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แˆณแ‹ญแˆฐแŒก แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแˆแŠญแŠญแˆญแŠ“ แ‹จแ‹แ‹ญแ‹ญแ‹ต แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆŠแŠจแแ‰ฑ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹จแ‹ฒแ‹ซแˆตแ–แˆซแ‹ แ‰€แŠ• แ‰ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แŠขแŠฎแŠ–แˆšแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆซแ‹Š แ‹˜แˆญแŽแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‰ แˆ›แ‰ฐแŠฎแˆญ แŠฅแ‹แ‰…แŠ“ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แ‹จแˆšแŒˆแŠ™แ‰ต แ‰ แŠแƒแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆฐแˆœแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆณแ‰ตแ‰แ‰ แ‰ต แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแŠ• แŠจแˆแ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ˆแ‹ฑ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆš แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ตแˆ แ‹ญแŒˆแŠ›แˆ‰แŠ“ แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แ‹œแŒŽแ‰ฝ แˆตแˆˆแˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แ‹ซแŒˆแŠ™แŠ“ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแˆ„ แŒ‰แ‹ณแ‹ญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆซแˆณแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹‹แ…แŠฆ แ‹ซแ‹ฐแˆญแŒ‰ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แˆ€แˆ‹แŠแŠแ‰ตแˆ˜ แˆ†แŠ แŠ แ‰…แˆ แˆตแˆ‹แˆˆแ‹ แ‰ตแˆแ‰… แˆšแŠ“ แˆ˜แŒซแ‹ˆแ‰ต แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก

    แŒˆแŠ•แŒฃแ‹ญแŠ“ แ‰ฐแŒˆแŠ•แŒฃแ‹ญ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แŠ แˆธแ‰ฃแˆชแ‹Žแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ†แŠ‘ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝ แ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆณแˆณแ‹ญ แŠ แ‰‹แˆ แ‹ซแˆ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแŠ–แˆซแ‰ธแ‹ แˆšแŠ“ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฃแ‹ŠแŠ“ แ‰กแ‹ณแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แˆŠแ‹‹แŒ‹แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แŒแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠ• แŠจแŠญแˆแˆแŠ“ แ‰ฅแˆ„แˆญแ‰ฐแŠแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแˆ‹แ‰† แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Š แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแˆณแˆณแ‰ตแ แ‹จแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แ‹ตแˆจแŠญแŠ“ แˆ˜แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฃแ‰ต แˆฒแŠ–แˆญ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰คแ‰ต แŠจแˆŒแˆˆ แŠญแแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฒแˆแˆ แ‰คแ‰ฐแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠจแˆŒแˆˆ แŒแˆˆแˆฐแ‰ฅ แ‹จแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‰คแ‰ต แˆˆแˆ†แŠแ‰ฝ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แ‰คแ‰ฐแˆฐแ‰ฅ แˆˆแˆ†แŠ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แˆ˜แ‰ปแˆ แ‰ แˆแˆ‰แˆ แŒŽแŠ• แˆˆแˆซแˆตแˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆˆแŠญแˆแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แ‰ฐแ‹ˆแŒแ‹ถ แ‰ แŠฅแŠฉแˆแŠแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆ˜แˆฐแˆจแ‰ฐ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆ˜แ‹‹แ‰…แˆญแŠ“ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆญ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆตแŒˆแ‹ฐแ‹ฐ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แŠ แˆตแ‰ธแŠณแ‹ญ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แˆŠแˆฐแŒ แ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ… แŠซแˆแˆ†แŠ แŒแŠ• แŒ แˆ‹แ‰ถแ‰ปแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‹ˆแ‹ฐแˆšแˆ˜แŠ™แˆแŠ• แŒฅแ‹แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆฐแ‰†แ‰ƒ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆซแˆณแ‰ฝแŠ• แŒฅแ‹แ‰ต แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ˜แˆซแŠ• แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แ‹ตแˆž แˆŠแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰… แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‹‹แˆแกแก

    แ‰ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แ‰ฐแˆžแˆแ‰ฐแ‹ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ปแŠ• แ‰ แˆ˜แˆแŒธแˆ แ‹˜แˆ˜แŠ“แ‰ตแŠ• แ‹ซแˆตแ‰†แŒ แˆฉ แ‹จแˆ€แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแŠฅแ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แŠฅแˆซแˆตแŠ“ แ‰ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆตแ‰ƒแ‹ญ แŠ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒช แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘แ‰ต แŠจแˆตแ‰ฅแˆ€แ‰ต แŠแŒ‹ แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ แ‰ƒแ‰ฝแˆ แˆŠแ‰ฃแˆ‰ แŒแ‹ฐ แ‹จแˆšแˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแŠแˆฑ แŠ แˆแŠ• แ‰ฃแˆ‰แ‰ แ‰ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆ‰ แŒแŠ• แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แ‰ฃแˆˆแŠ•แ‰ แ‰ตแˆ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ†แŠแŠ•แˆ แˆˆแˆ˜แ‰€แŒ แˆ แŠ แŠ•แ‰ฝแˆแˆแกแก แ‰ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญแˆ แˆ†แŠ แ‰ แ‹แŒญ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŠ แŒ แ‰ƒแˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แŒˆแ…แ‰ณ แ‹จแ‹ซแ‹˜แŠ“ แŠจแˆ†แŠ แ‹ฐแˆจแŒƒ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแ‹ฐแˆจแˆฐ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ‘ แ‰ณแ‹แ‰† แ‰ฐแŒˆแ‰ขแ‹แŠ•แˆ แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แ‰ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆ›แŒแŠ˜แ‰ต แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแ‰ แ‰ณแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแˆˆแˆแ‹ แŠจแ‰ฐแˆžแŠจแˆจ แŒแŠ• แ‰ฅแ‹™ แˆณแ‹ญแ‰†แ‹ญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠฅแˆณแ‰ฐ แŒˆแˆžแˆซ แˆแŠ•แ‹ตแ‰ถ แˆแˆ‹แ‰ฝแŠ•แŠ•แˆ แ‰ แˆšแ‹ซแ‰ƒแŒฅแˆ แˆŠแ‹ซแŒฅแˆˆแ‰€แˆแ‰€แŠ•แŠ“ แˆŠแˆแŒ€แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ˜แ‰ณแˆ˜แŠ• แŠ แˆˆแ‰ แ‰ตแกแก แŠจแ‰ฃแ‹ต แˆˆแ‹แŒฅ แ‰ แŠ แˆˆแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ณแ‹จ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แ‹จแŠ›แˆ แˆˆแ‹แŒฅ แ‹จแ‹šแˆ… แŠ แŠซแˆ แ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณแ‹ แŠฅแ‹ซแˆตแŒˆแ‹ฐแ‹ฐแ‹ แŠแ‹แŠ“ แˆŠแŒ แ‰…แˆ˜แŠ• แ‰ แˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แ‹จแŒแ‹ต แˆ˜แˆˆแ‹ˆแŒฅ แŠ แˆˆแ‰ฅแŠ•แกแก

    แ‹จแŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแฃ แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹แฃ แˆแˆจแŠ•แˆณแ‹ญแฃ แˆตแ”แŠ•แฃ แŒฃแˆŠแ‹ซแŠ•แฃ แŒ€แˆญแˆ˜แŠ•แฃ แ‰ฑแˆญแŠญแŠ“ แˆŒแˆŽแ‰ฝแˆ แ‰ฅแ‹™ แˆ€แŒˆแˆฎแ‰ฝ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แŠฅแ‹จแ‰ณแ‹จ แ‹ซแˆˆ แ‹จแ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แ‰€แ‹แˆต แŠจแˆแˆˆแ‰ฐแŠ›แ‹ แ‹จแŠ แˆˆแˆ แŒฆแˆญแŠแ‰ต แ‹ˆแ‹ฒแˆ… แŒˆแŒฅแˆŸแ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ซแ‹แ‰… แŠแ‹แกแก แŠฅแ‹แŠแ‰ต แˆˆแˆ˜แŠ“แŒˆแˆญ แŠจแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแŠแˆฑ แ‰ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซ แŠจแˆšแ‰ณแ‹จแ‹ แ‹จแŠจแ‹ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แŠ แˆœแˆชแŠซแŠ•แŠ“ แŠฅแŠ•แŒแˆŠแ‹แŠ• แŒจแˆแˆฎ แ‰ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠจแŠžแ‰ฝแŠ“ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฆแ‰ฝ แˆ˜แŠซแŠจแˆ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แˆแ‹ฉแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฅแˆ‹แ‰ป แˆฒแˆ˜แˆˆแŠจแ‰ฑแ‰ต แ‹จแŠ›แˆ› แ‰ตแŠ•แˆฝ แ‹จแˆ†แŠแŠ“ แ‰ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ‰ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆŠแ‹ซแŒˆแŠ™แˆˆแ‰ต แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฝแˆ แŠแ‹ แ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฅแˆ‹แˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆแŠ•แŠ“ แ‹จแŠแˆฑ แˆ›แˆ€แ‰ แˆจแˆฐแ‰ฅ แŠจแŠ› แ‰ แŒฃแˆ แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆตแˆœแ‰ต แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แˆฐแ‹ แˆ˜แ‰ฅแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆ™แˆ‰ แŒแŠ•แ‹›แ‰ค แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ“ แˆ˜แŒฃแˆต แ‹จแˆŒแˆˆแ‰ฃแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแŒฅแˆต แˆแ‹ฉแŠแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แˆ†แŠ แŒแŒญแ‰ถแ‰ฝแŠ• แ‰ แ‹แ‹แ‰ตแŠ“ แŠญแˆญแŠญแˆญ แ‰ แˆ˜แแ‰ณแ‰ต แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆแŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแˆฐแˆ‹แˆแŠ• แŒฅแ‰…แˆ แˆตแˆˆแˆšแ‹ซแ‹แ‰…แŠ“ แ‰ แŠขแŠฎแŠ–แˆšแˆ แˆซแˆฑแŠ• แ‹จแ‰ปแˆˆ แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ซแŒฃ แ‹จแˆšแˆแˆซ แ‰ฅแ‰ป แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแˆšแŒ แ‰ฅแ‰… แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹ŠแŠ“ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ฃแ‹Š แˆตแˆœแ‰ตแˆ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก

    แ‹จแŠ› แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆ˜แˆ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ•แˆ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แ‰ แ‰€แˆ‹แˆ‰ แŠจแŠจแ‹ แ‰€แ‹แˆต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แ‰ แ‹ตแŠ•แŒˆแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹ˆแ‹ฒแ‹ซแ‹แŠ‘ แˆŠแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ
    แŠ แ‹ฐแŒˆแŠ› แŠแ‹แกแก แ‹จแˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆจแˆฐแ‰ก แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแˆณแˆฐแ‰ฅแŠ“ แŠ แˆ˜แˆˆแŠซแŠจแ‰ต แŒˆแŠ“ แŠ แˆแ‰ แˆฐแˆˆแˆแŠ“ แˆฐแ‹แŠ“ แŒ แˆˆแ‰… แŠ แ‹ตแˆญแŒŽ แˆ›แˆ˜แ‹›แ‹˜แŠ•แˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆ›แŒˆแŠ“แ‹˜แ‰ฅ แŠ แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆแˆแกแก แ‰ แŠขแŠฎแŠ–แˆš แ‹ฐแŠซแˆ›แŠ“ แŠจแŠฅแŒ… แ‹ˆแ‹ฐ แŠ แ แ‰ฃแˆˆแˆ˜แ‰ปแˆ แ‹จแˆšแˆซแ‹ˆแŒฅ แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แ‰ แˆแŠ•แˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ต แŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แˆˆแˆ›แŒแŠœแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แŒ‚ แ‹ซแˆˆแ‹แŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‹ซแŒฃ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‹Š แˆแŠญแŠ•แ‹ซแ‰ต แŒˆแŠ“ แ‰ แŒฅแˆแ‰€แ‰ต แ‹จแˆˆแ‹แˆแกแก

    แ‹‹แŠแŠ›แ‹แŠ“ แ‰ตแˆแ‰ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แŠจแ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซแ‹ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆฒแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญแŠแ‰ตแŠ“ แ‰ แ‹จแ‰ฆแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ซแŒˆแ‰ฃแŠ›แˆ แ‰ฃแ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆ˜แˆญแ‹˜แŠ›แŠ“ แŠ แŒฅแŠ แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แ‹จแ‰ฅแˆ„แˆญ แ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซแŠ“ แ‹ซแˆ‹แŒแ‰ฃแ‰ฅ แŠจแˆแˆŽ แŠจแŠญแˆแˆแˆ… แŠ แ‰ตแˆˆแ แˆ˜แˆ˜แˆชแ‹ซแŠ“ แŠ แ‰‹แˆ แ‹แŒคแ‰ฑ แˆŒแˆ‹ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แ‹จแˆ…แ‹แ‰ฅ แŠฅแˆแ‰‚แ‰ตแŠ“ แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แˆ˜แแˆจแˆต แŠแ‹แกแก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แŠจแˆ›แŠ•แŠ›แ‹แˆ แˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แ‰ แ‰ แˆˆแŒ  แŠฅแŠ› แ‹ซแˆˆแ‰ฅแŠ•แŠ• แ‹จแ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซ แ‰ฝแŒแˆญ แŠ แˆแŠ‘ แˆแŠ•แˆแ‰ณแ‹ แ‹ญแŒˆแ‰ฃแˆแกแก แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แŠซแˆ‹แ‹ฐแˆจแŒแŠ• แŒแŠ• แˆŠแ‹ฐแˆญแˆตแ‰ฅแŠ• แ‹จแˆšแ‰ฝแˆ แˆ˜แ‹˜แ‹ แˆแŠ• แˆŠแˆ†แŠ• แ‰ แ‰ตแŠญแŠญแˆ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ณแ‹ˆแ‰… แˆฒแˆ˜แˆตแˆ แŠแŒˆแˆญ แŒแŠ• แŠฅแŒ…แŒ แŠ แˆตแˆแˆช แ‹จแˆ†แŠ แŠแ‹แกแก แ‰ แ‹šแˆ…แˆ แ‰ฐแŒ แ‹ซแ‰‚ แˆ›แŠ•แˆ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ• แŠ แ‰ถ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆแŠ• แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆ€แˆ‹แŠ แŠ แˆตแ‰€แˆแŒฆ แˆแˆ‰แŠ•แˆ แŠ แ‹จแ‰ฐแ‰†แŒฃแŒ แˆจ แ‹ซแˆˆ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แŒฅแ‰…แˆ˜แŠ› แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰น แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แŠฅแŠแ‹šแˆ… แŒฅแ‰…แˆ˜แŠ› แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹ˆแ‰น แ‰ฃแ‹ญแŠ–แˆฉ แŠ–แˆฎ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ฃแˆˆแ‰ แ‰ต แˆแŠ”แ‰ณ แˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แ‰€แˆญแ‰ถ แˆˆแŠ แŠ•แ‹ดแˆ แ‰ขแˆ†แŠ• แŠจแˆตแˆแŒฃแˆ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆŠแ‹ˆแŒฃ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰ฝแˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‰ณแ‹Žแ‰… แŠแ‹แŠ“ แ‹ฐแŒ‹แŠแ‹Žแ‰นแˆ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‰ฐแŒ แ‹ซแ‰‚แ‹Žแ‰ฝ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก

    แŠจ90 แ‰ แˆ˜แ‰ถ แ‰ แˆ‹แ‹ญ แ‹จแˆšแˆ†แŠ‘ แŠขแ‰ตแ‹ฎแŒฒแ‹ซแ‹Šแ‹ซแŠ• แ‰ แŠ แŒฅแŠแŠแ‰ฑแŠ“ แŒŽแŒ…แŠแ‰ฑ แŠฅแ‹จแˆแˆจแŒ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ• แŠ แŒˆแ‹›แ‹ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰€แ‰ แˆ‰แก แˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ตแŠ“ แˆปแ‰ขแ‹ซ แŠจแŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐ แŠฆแŠแŒ แ‹ซแˆ‰ แŒ‹แˆญ แˆ†แŠแ‹ แ‹ซแ‹ˆแŒกแ‰ตแŠ• แˆ…แŒˆแˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ตแˆ แˆ†แŠ แŠญแˆแˆ แ‹จแˆ›แ‹ญแ‰€แ‰ แˆ‰แก แˆ€แŒˆแˆชแ‰ต แŠจแ‹šแˆ… แ‹จแ‰ฐแˆˆแ‹จ แŠ แˆตแ‰ฐแ‹ณแ‹ฐแˆญ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃแ‰ตแŠ“ แŒŠแ‹œ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ„แ‹ต แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ›แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ฐแˆšแŒˆแ‰ฃ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆแŠ‘ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แกแก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แˆ…แ‹แ‰ก แˆแˆ‹แˆฝ แ‹ซแŒˆแŠแŠ“ แˆ€แŒˆแˆซแ‰ฝแŠ•แˆ แŠจแŠแ‰ต แˆˆแŠแ‰ต แŠจแ‰ฐแ‹ฐแ‰€แŠแ‰ฃแ‰ต แ‹จแ–แˆˆแ‰ฒแŠซแŠ“ แ‹ญแˆ…แŠ• แ‰ฐแŠจแ‰ตแˆŽ แ‹จแˆšแŠจแˆฐแ‰ต แ‹จแŠขแŠฎแŠ–แˆ แˆ†แŠ แˆ›แˆ…แ‰ แˆซแ‹Š แ‰€แ‹แˆต แ‹แˆตแŒฅ แŠฅแŠ•แ‹ณแ‰ตแ‹ˆแ‹ตแ‰… แ‹ญแ‰ปแˆ แ‹˜แŠ•แ‹ต แ‹จแŠ แ‰ถ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆ แˆ˜แŠ•แŒแˆตแ‰ต แŠจแŠ แˆแŠ• แŒ€แˆแˆฎ แˆ˜แŠ•แ‰€แˆณแ‰€แˆตแŠ“ แˆˆแˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แˆ˜แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แŒฅแˆจแ‰ต แˆ›แ‹ตแˆจแŒ แ‹ญแŠ–แˆญแ‰ แ‰ณแˆแกแก แ‰ตแˆแ‰ แŒฅแ‹ซแ‰„ แŒแŠ• แŠ แ‰ถ แˆ€แ‹ญแˆˆแˆ›แˆญแ‹ซแˆ แˆแŠ• แ‹ซแˆ…แˆ แŠจแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแ‰ฃแ‹ญแŠแ‰ต แŠแƒแŠ“ แŒˆแˆˆแˆแ‰ฐแŠ› แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแˆˆแ‹ แŠแ‹แกแก แŠแƒแŠ“ แŒˆแˆˆแˆแ‰ฐแŠ› แˆ†แŠแ‹ แˆตแˆซแ‰ธแ‹แŠ• แˆ˜แˆตแˆซแ‰ต แŠซแˆแ‰ปแˆ‰ แ‹ฐแŒแˆž แ‹จแˆ€แŒˆแˆญ แŒ แ‰…แˆ‹แ‹ญ แˆšแŠ’แˆตแ‰ฐแˆญ แˆณแ‹ญแˆ†แŠ‘ แ‹จแˆ…แ‹ˆแˆ€แ‰ต แ‹จแˆตแˆซ แŠ แˆตแˆแƒแˆš แˆ˜แˆณแˆชแ‹ซ แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆตแ‰ฅแˆแŠ“ แˆตแˆˆแˆ˜แˆ†แŠ“แ‰ธแ‹แˆ แ‹จแˆšแ‹ซแˆณแˆแŠ•แˆ แŠแ‹แกแก แˆตแˆˆแˆ†แŠแˆ แ‹จแŠฅแˆณแ‰ธแ‹ แŠแƒแŠ“ แŒˆแˆˆแˆแ‰ฐแŠ› แˆ˜แˆ†แŠ• แŒแ‹ต แ‹จแˆšแˆแŠ“ แˆˆแŒ‹แˆซ แˆ˜แแ‰ตแˆ„ แ‰ แŒ‹แˆซ แŒฅแˆจแ‰ต แˆ˜แˆแŒฃแ‰ต แ‹‹แŠแŠ› แˆ˜แŠ•แŒˆแ‹ตแŠ“ แ‰แˆแ แŠแ‹แกแก

  42. Fitsum says:

    Most Amharans think that they are the symbol of ethiopianism !!!!! They blame others for being racist . What is the point then if welquite is part of Tigray ( Tigray is not another country). As far it stays with in Ethiopia it doesn’t matter whether it will be with Gondor, Gojam, afar or wellega? . What matters most is the need of the people who live in that area ? They should be asked ?
    Was there any region called Benshangul before ? What about Afar ? Was there a region called Oromia ? Debrebirhan was not par of the region under current scenario ? It was par of shoa administration ? Historical claim for any part of the country cannot be applied at least under the current constitution ?
    Then why are we trapped in welquite only ? There is hidden agenda behind this ??????
    If we blame TPLF for being racist ? Do we have the moral ground to criticize TPLF ? Trapped in welquite is part of Gondor or Tigray do not show that we are better than the party we blamed.
    To the contrary , I have observed those who claim that they are more Ethiopians are more racist than the party they blamed.

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